Wednesday, December 25, 2019

My gendered story as a FEMALE/WOMAN Free Essay Example, 1000 words

Introduction Sex of a human being plays an essential role at every stage of his life. Gender of a person shapes most of the personal, professional, social and family aspects of his life. Moreover, the environment in which a person grows also contributes towards development of beliefs and outlook related to gender. My life story is not different. My environment and the family background have played a major role in making me a feminine person that I am today. I am a twenty year old female studying in college. I used to think that I am quite an ambitious person by nature. However, when I saw the determination and drive of some of my male friends, I realized that I lack the same amount of drive to achieve my ambition. I am quite flexible by nature and have adaptability in my behavior. Moreover, my choices and emotions are very feminine. I am affectionate and caring by nature and like to look ‘girly’. I do enjoy doing ‘girly things’ like being in clique, gossipi ng, wearing make up and aiming for shapely body. We will write a custom essay sample on My gendered story as a FEMALE/WOMAN or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now I even go through phases where I feel that my world will end if I go to a party with bad hair or inappropriate dress. Many of my decisions are based upon the gender influence on me. For example, when we have guests for dinner, my brothers go out to play very casually. However, I stay back to help my mother. If someone is sick at home, I display caring behavior and worry about that person. This behavior of mine has made me realize that I am a very ‘feminine’ girl. However, I also realize that what has made me a ‘feminine’ person is not just my gender but also the environment in which I was bought up. Gender and Society Gender can be defined as â€Å"the cultural expectations and societal arrangements by which men and women have different experiences in society† (Andersen 2). It was believed that with advancement in society and modernization of the world, perception about women will change and they will get equal treatment in the society. However, even today, there are many countries in the world where women get inferior treatment and their qualities are ignored. Different researches in the field of science have proved that there is great disparity and inconsistency in what people believe and what they actually end up doing (Mack et al. 13). Most often, people’s behavior is contradictory to their beliefs (Mack et al. 13). People in Western culture think that women and men are opposite and separate (Andersen 28) and hence, cannot be treated equally. Even in a developed country like the U. S., women are yet to get equal opportunities as men in different areas of life.

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

An Ocean Of Modesty And Lessons From My Mother - 1324 Words

A dash of grammar, an ocean of modesty and lessons from my mother One of the greatest philosophers that contributed to the Latin literature, Seneca, once said: â€Å"Non quia difficilia sunt non audemus, sed quia non audemus, difficilia sunt†, meaning: â€Å"It is not because things are difficult that we do not dare, it is because we do not dare that things are difficult†. (Seneca) Somewhere on a bookshelf, in an apartment, in a building, in a small town, in a not so well-known country, a first memory comes to mind: this small yellow old book which silently stood there waiting for my finger tips to discover it. â€Å"Seneca s philosophical writings† was the first philosophy book that I ever read. This book has changed my life from that first†¦show more content†¦I was raised in a Christian orthodox family, with a younger sister and an older brother. In the beginning, it was just me and my older brother, followed after a few years when we had a younger sister, that we cared for. My parents build a beautiful home for us, a home that brings into my soul only beautiful memories. I remember with great love my first few simple toys, which did have a true meaning for me. Back then, I did not know what a laptop was, or a mobile phone, or Facebook. Instead I knew what it meant to jump the rope with friends in front of the house or play hide and seek. During my childhood the choices of having a good time were quite limited. The children s programs on television were only on Saturday and Sunday, each 15 min long, and during the week we had short educational shows about 30 minutes long. Because of that and for the reason that our Mom didn’t want us to get bored, she would read us a story every night. I am so grateful for all the stories she read to us, because this made me dream and develop my thinking, since I thought that all the stories were real. The passion for studying, it all started at home, from my parents who remind me every day how important it is to learn. I remember how every Sunday night; my mother would ask me to prepare for a new week of school. She made this our ritual, as we would check together

Monday, December 9, 2019

Apocalypse Now And Heart Of Darkness Essay Example For Students

Apocalypse Now And Heart Of Darkness Essay Placed in various time periods and settings, the novel Heart of Darkness, written by Joseph Conrad, and the movie Apocalypse Now, produced and directed by Francis Ford Coppola, both create the same mysterious journey with various similarties and differences. The journeys mystery lies in the scene; it is one down a river by boat, deep in the jungle. The jungle is populated mainly with wild animals and a few natives. The reason for the expedition is to search for a sick man named Kurtz, who is followed by the natives and his men from their previous missions. In Heart of Darkness, the journey to find Kurtz, who is an ivory trader who has gone too deep into the jungles of Africa in search of ivory, while in Apocalypse Now, Kurtz is a high-ranking officer in the military who has disobeyed orders and is now fighting the Vietnam war in Cambodia with his unit in his own fashion. The protagonists in both the novel and the movie go through various changes while on their mission to find Kurtz. Marlow, who is the rookie captain of a ship, slowly begins to envision Kurtz as an immortal figure. In the movie, Willards state of mind ranges from being a demented soldier to a crazed assassin. Although they are on the same mission, Marlow and Willard face terribly different factors that affect their journey. The difference of experiences, location, technology, communication, and mindset all affect each character in different ways. Although they may have faced varying environments, in the end the result was the same, Kurtz is discovered as a sick and possibly demented individual. Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse Now are two strikingly similar yet subtly different stories that end in the same fashion. Since Heart of Darkness was based in the 1890s, Marlow experiences many things due to the lack of modern amenities and modern technologies. For example, a damaged steamer delays Marlows journey for almost three weeks. The delay is caused because Marlow and his crew could not get the rivets they needed to fix the steamer. A phone or radio could have helped Marlow fix his steamer earlier and gotten onto the water quicker. Three weeks might have been the difference between life and death for Mr. Kurtz. Another example of a lack of communication is the communication between stations: Is he alone there? Yes, answered the manager; he sent his assistant down the river with a note to me in these terms: Clear this poor devil out of the country, and dont bother sending another more of that sort. I had rather be alone than have the kind of men you can dispose of with me. It was more than a year ago. Conrad 100 If the communication between stations would have been better, Marlow may have known the conditions the station was in, and the area around it. Information about Kurtzs authority over the natives also could have helped save the life of a member of Marlows crew. Communication with Kurtzs station would have benefited Marlow and his mission, by saving precious time and lives. Another modern amenity Marlow could have used were detailed maps and reconnaissance. These tools would have allowed Marlow access to solving geographic issues preventing him from reaching Kurtzs station, such as a sandbank and a grassy islet. The sandbank and the grassy islet were what caused Marlow and his crew to be sitting ducks for the natives to shoot at. The necessary modern amenities may have made Marlows journey a shorter and safer one. During the times in which Apocalypse Now is based, many aspects of daily life evolved. These changes have profoundly affected civilized life, while those still out in the jungle may not have felt any of these effects at all. Willard dealt with different issues than Marlow because technology solved the many problems that Marlow faced. Willard did not have to deal with a lack of communication or reconnaissance, all of this was provided by radio, phone, and reconnaissance planes. Willard also knew about the conditions of Kurtzs location, he knew the natives followed Kurtz, and that it was going to be a gruesome scene when he arrived. Arms and the Man is one of George Bernard Shaw's successfully written plays that have become predominant and globally renowned EssayMarlow sees this, and now feels as if he must take care of Kurtz, to save an extraordinary human being. This is the exact opposite of how Willard feels in the movie. Willard is almost the exact opposite of Marlow, and he shows it from the beginning to the end of the movie. Willard begins the movie in a hotel room drunk, exploring the depths of his sorrow. Willard is experiencing with drawl from not being out in the jungle, fighting fordemocracy. Willard wishes to return to action, and soon his wish is granted. He is given a secret mission by the army to assassinate Kurtz. Willard does not seem up to the idea of being an assassin as he begins his journey, but by the end he has transformed into a full-fledged killer. Meeting Lieutenant Colonel Kilgore definitely has an effect on Willard. Kilgore shows Willard that life is difficult, and to be an American means being the best at everything. This is shown in the scene where Kilgore and his men are bombing a Vietnamese town, while playing music in the background. The music symbolizes American superiority and a feeling of invincibility. Willard and his crew are now making their way upriver, and they spot a Vietnamese fishing boat. Pulling it over for inspection, the situation drastically changes and they kill innocent people, but save a puppy. Willard is shown sitting on the opposite side of the boat observing as the event unfolds. Willard seems to notice the recklessness that life brings, and the utter disregard for life that the crew seemed to display. The only member who shows some sympathy is the Chef, who cries, but is ignored by the rest of the crew as if nothing had happened. It seems as if Willard suddenly cares less and less about the lives of others as he saw how fragile it was and how it easy it was to take it away. Willards conscience breaks when Lawrence Fishburnes character died. A child had died to fight in a war that made no sense, and now Willard is finally set on his mission to kill. As he pulls up into Kurtzs base, Willard sees the sickness and decided to rid of it. Meeting with the madman Kurtz only makes things worse, Willard is disgusted at what was going on. After he kills Kurtz, Willard seems confused on what he would do next, weather to give the order to bomb the village or let the innocent followers live. It was a major difference from Heart of Darkness, where Marlow goes back to England a more educated person, but not necessarily a mentally scarred person such as Willard. Though there are various differences and slight similarities, Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse Now both portray the same journey into the jungle and inescapably into each characters self. Although located in different regions of the world, in different time periods, with different factors, each character faced many different events and situations that inevitably changed their perspective. Marlow ultimately learned of the value of a life, and the effects one man can have on another. On the other hand Willard had gained a total disregard for human beings, and will probably stayed in the assassin mindset for a long period of time after the Vietnam War was over. Whether book or movie the ending was the same, the entertainment came in the subtle differences one could notice.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Overpopulation vs Overconsumption Essay Example

Overpopulation vs Overconsumption Paper In the article â€Å"Brazil: Amazon Deforestation Seen Surging†, the author Reuters discusses the cause and effect of deforestation of the South American rainforest’s. Another article entitled â€Å"Prevent Corals, Fish and Whales from Ocean Acidification† written by the Center for Biological Diversity, approaches a different yet describes similar causes. Articles like these are being posted on the Internet constantly, causing people to question the source and suction Of these problems. In order for the solution to be found, the root of these problems must be brought to light. 1 2] In recent discussions regarding humans affect on the environment, the introverts lies with whether overpopulation or overcompensation is more harm to the environment, culture and the living conditions of future generations. The stakeholders affected by these issues are humans, including the general population (nationally and internationally), the government, and future generations. Societal consensus assumed that overpopulation is the main culprit. People often identify overpopulation with food shortages, farming of marginal lands, and detrimental effects on the environment. Another view highlights overcompensation as the main culprit because it rumps the negative effects of overpopulation. In sum, the question is whether our society should be more concerned about the large population growth occurring in places such as India, or the large amount of consumption in countries such as the U. S. Finding a solution to this issue will be complicated but is vital for those effected. The solution itself poses many questions: Who is responsible for the effects that are caused by overcompensation and overpopulation? Who will to take action and help solve the problem? How do we going to prevent further detriment to the earth and humanity? Overcompensation: Overcompensation has a detrimental affect on the environment, and our culture and our economy forces this issue into light. Those that believe that this is the main cause to these issues pose a good argument; their main point is that a small fraction of the world’s population consumes the majority of the resources being produced. While it may seem like overpopulation is the issue at hand, this view shows that this may not be true, by stating different facts and beliefs that shows otherwise. We will write a custom essay sample on Overpopulation vs Overconsumption specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Overpopulation vs Overconsumption specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Overpopulation vs Overconsumption specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In a response to this controversy, a teacher in the SHiPS Teachers Network ousted a case study in which he or argues that overcompensation has more affect on humanity. The author makes it clear that he or she is biased, but gives facts that prove overcompensation is to blame. The teacher proves his or her point by stating some facts may be misconstrued. â€Å"One author recently conveyed the alarming disparity in birth rates: in three generations, a German woman would have 6 descendants, in the U. S. , 14, and in Africa, 258. The implication, of course, was that by the middle of the next century, Africans would be depleting resources 18 times more quickly and damaging the environment 18 times more severely than people in industrialized nations. † [5] This data leads one to believe that the main cause for the damage is overpopulation. But the author retorts with a strong argument to further his or her point. â€Å"Who most affects the environment? According to one estimate, a person in the U. S. Has 50 times more adverse impact than someone in Bangladesh. An American, on the average, consumes 50 times as much steel and 300 times as much plastic as someone in India. When one examines consumption rather than just population, the environmental problem Of scarcity looks very different. † The author then compares consumption to the camper’s familiar backcountry ethics saying, â€Å"leave a campsite as you found it†, his or her point is that people that consume more than they produce are doing something wrong. After reading this teachers response, one could easily come to the conclusion that overcompensation is to blame. 5] After further research, an equation was found that could calculate the impact on humanity by taking into account three simple variables. The following can sum up the equation. Impact is equal to population multiplied y affluence (per capita consumption) multiplied by the technology used to produce goods (energy, waste). Paul Earlier created this equation, his point being that per capita consumption and technology are just as significant as the number of people when it comes to the impact on humanity. With this idea, it is easy to see how all three variables play an equal part in this issue. Overpopulation: While overcompensation seems to pose the greatest and most immediate threat, overpopulation is not to be ignored or taken lightly. In the world today, We kick at places like India and China and cringe when We hear the Vast mounts of people that live there. With an exponential growth rate, and reports of overcrowding in places all over the world, it is understandable that overpopulation is on the minds of the general population. While those who believe overpopulation is to blame, they understand that both issues pose a problem to the world today. Regardless of which has a bigger affect on earth’s resources, they accept the fact that most of the earth’s resources are being consumed by the few. The main argument that they make is that overcompensation is a huge problem, and overpopulation amplifies the impact that it has. In the article ‘Where Should We Focus†, author Michael Hander delves into the controversy of overcompensation versus overpopulation. In this article, Hander first approaches the argument by stating a common goal of both parties. He focuses on the idea that because of our current rate of consumption, and the fast growth rate of the population, humanity cannot be sustained. By comparing the consumption of large economic nations, and those of third world countries, Hander contrasts the lifestyles of the average American with that of one from a developing country. â€Å"On the other hand, cost third world consumption levels are between 0. 5 and 5 percent of ours. This vast difference is not because these people recycle, use little plastic or don’t drive a turbo-charged car O it IS because they have no car, no central heat, no refrigerator, and maybe no house at all! He then explains that Americans should not think of themselves as selfish as long as they consume at a reasonable rate. He goes on to state that Americans not only believe that they are morally right in consuming a reasonable amount, but they desire this level of consumption. Hander states, â€Å"It is this lack of the most basic items, teems which most of us believe every human should be able to have, which make up most of the consumption difference between the haves and the have onto†¦ We need to allow all of the world’s citizens a reasonable lifestyle while at the same time heading toward sustainability. Hander furthers his point by saying that overpopulation is more important in the long run. Keeping his previous ideas in mind, he makes the statement that â€Å"overpopulation occurs at a lower point with a higher standard of living†. This makes sense because the third world countries will be consuming these items Americans consider basic once they develop further, raising the overall consumption of the world. In order for this to be achieved, population needs to be lowered. In the mind of Hander overpopulation control is not just as important to sustaining the earth, but more important. 13] Common Ground: While all views on this topic understand that both arguments have importance, they each seem to find their own views of higher importance. But while they lack this ability to agree on who causes the most problems, they both take responsibility for the effects that they have on humanity and everything that is concerned. In order to make it easier, breaking up the effects of these two issues is essential. The effects on culture and the environment are the same, regardless of the cause, and will be covered thoroughly. To start, the most obvious effect of these two issues is displayed in the environment. As the population continues to grow, and consumption in 3rd world countries rises, we will eventually run out of room and supplies to sustain the general population. While this is a long-term affect that is unlikely to ever have a solution, there are short-term affects that inhibit our ability as unmans to enjoy living on this beautiful earth. As discussed in the introduction, deforestation and the decreasing numbers in fish, whales, and coral are examples of extreme effects on the environment. According to Amy Hardwood in the article â€Å"Overpopulation and Extinction† we are currently in Earth’s sixth mass extinction. In her article she estimates that 30,000 species are going extinct every year. Hardwood effectively shows a direct relationship between population increase, and extinction rate. She observes that this is the first of the 6 mass extinctions on earth to be caused by one species, and to planetary or galactic processes. With obvious examples displayed before us everyday, it would be ignorant to not acknowledge the detrimental effects that overpopulation and consumption are having on the environment. 7] Interestingly, overcompensation and overpopulation affect the way we live and have far reaching cultural effects. Because we see the harm that we are causing, we find it essential to do something in order to prevent this. This may be using less energy, recycling, buying less materialistic items, etc. A much deeper effects can be related directly to these issues. In an article Ritter by Knap Shah called â€Å"Creating the Consumer’, Shah expands the idea that consumption in America hasn’t always been so abundant. To support this claim, the author highlights the mindset of Americans as early settlers or Europeans. He describes how living conservatively used to be the norm, and only the wealthy were able to live lavishly and spend excess amounts on comfort. This mindset was maintained by religion and social pressure because spending lavishly was frowned upon and considered wasteful. [2] In a Survey conducted by Hander, â€Å"only 21 percent said they would be willing o do without a car and only 13 percent would forgo their Quarter-bounders with cheese†. 13] then read, â€Å"Overcompensation won’t Save America† by David Scrota. The description of an American that Scrota gave was that of a selfish and ignorant person. He describes the American mindset with the phrase â€Å"shop till you drop†, and mentions that it is a vital flaw in most Americans. â€Å"The most recent holiday binge exemplified the impending crisis. Despite persistent unemployment, flat wages and higher prices for necessities (food, healthcare, etc. ), America nonetheless went on its usual post-Thanksgiving buying spree. This frustrated me, while at the same time motivating me to find a way to learn from his words. [1 0] When considering possible solutions, it is important to take all sides into account. While this may not seem possible due to the vast differences in opinions, it may be feasible. With this in mind it is key to look past the arguments posed by each side, and use the middle ground to find a solution. The question that needs an answer isn’t which poses a greater threat to the world, the people who live here, and the people who will live here. But, it is how humans can work together to formulate a method to slow the institution of this earth’s resources and space. In order for this to be accomplished, it is key that both sides understand the importance of the opposing view. By reading through many articles and papers written from both point of views, it should be easier to formulate a plan. As they both have proven to be threats to the world, so too should the solution incorporate both problems. Overcompensation is the short-term problem of the two, and as such this problem should be solved first. There is no easy way to prevent higher output countries like America from consuming more than their fair share. But cause these places with higher consumption are shown to have a higher gap, we can infer that they also have a higher standard of education. While this is not true in all circumstances, it is true for America, and we definitely are to blame for consuming way over the average. â€Å"With world population at 6 billion and rising, the richest 20% of humanity consumes 86% of all goods and services used, while the poorest fifth consumes just 1. 3%. [4] With this in mind, preventing overcompensation will have to Start in these higher educated, yet over consuming countries. The idea is to appeal to the nations tit higher education. With proof that material objects don’t create happiness, it is important to show that the lower consuming, and lower standards of living may be a more appealing lifestyle. â€Å"First, we need to recognize that there are more effective and satisfying ways to achieve fulfillment than by simply buying more stuff. † [9] In this article, â€Å"Toward a Solution† author Vicki Robin shows the relationship between the need for money, and unhappiness. She captivates the reader by showing that it is time spent doing what we love with people we love that makes us happy, and not mime spent earning money to buy more and more goods adjust cause stress and complications. Robin proves her point by stating, m{et surveys have shown that our happiness peaked in 1957, when families had smaller houses, 1 car (at most), 1 bathroom and 1 television (black white)–and Vicars, personal computers and cordless phones didn’t exist. † Here lies the solution. This county was brought into debt and want for material needs through social pressure and advertising. By eliminating the idea that money buys happiness, and having more things will satisfy our wants, we should be able o reduce our consumption to reasonable levels. In order to do this the country will have to work as a whole. Children of this generation, while being spoiled and materialistic, seem to have seen the effects that this material wants have had on their parents and their lifestyles. People are saving more, learning to stay out of debt and manage their money more wisely. This is just the start but with a push, a lower and a more realistic standard of living may bloom. When it comes to overpopulation, there is no easy answer to this beast of a problem. Humans reproducing at an exponential rate will eventually use up ND destroy earth, as we know it. This is inevitable. But small changes to our culture and cultures around the world may slow this growth, and increase our time and happiness here. In my opinion the solution to this is simple. It doesn’t include limiting the number of children couples can have, or killing those who don’t deserve the space they are taking up. In my mind the solution to this is to enjoy our time while we can. This plays largely into the solution given for overcompensation.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

How to Identify the 10 Different Types of Clouds

How to Identify the 10 Different Types of Clouds SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Do you need to know the different types of clouds for school, or are you just interested in what’s up there in the sky? At first glance, all clouds can look pretty much the same, but with a bit of knowledge and practice you can soon learn how to tell exactly which kind of cloud you’re looking at. In this guide, we show you all the steps to becoming a cloud-identifying expert. We’ll go over the ten main types of clouds and give you the info you need to identify each cloud type, including cloud names, their shape, height in the sky, color, and the weather you can expect them to bring. We’ll end with some additional tips for identifying clouds, including easy tricks to differentiate similar-looking cloud types. The 10 Main Types of Clouds How many types of clouds are there? Generally speaking, there are ten main types of clouds you’ll see in the sky, and we discuss each of them below. For each of these different types of clouds, we’ve included a picture of the cloud, a short description, and the following additional information: Height: Where in the sky the cloud typically occurs (low-level, mid-level, or high-level) Color: The color of the cloud Shape: The form the cloud typically takes Weather: The weather the cloud is usually associated with or predicts Altocumulus Image source: Angelo Su/Flickr Height: Mid Color: White Shape: Heap-like and often grouped together Weather: Varies Altocumulus clouds are fairly common clouds that look like round white or gray patches in the sky. They are sometimes grouped in parallel lines and have been described as looking similar to tufts of wool or fish scales. Altostratus Image source: Wonderlane/Flickr (cropped from original) Height: Mid Color: White or light gray Shape: Thick and flat Weather: Usually indicate warmer weather is approaching; can cause light precipitation These clouds form a white or gray layer that blankets the sky at mid-level. There are usually no patches of blue sky when these clouds appear, but the sun is often visible as a dimly lit disk behind the clouds (although no shadows appear on the ground). Cirrocumulus Height: High Color: White or gray Shape: Rows of small patchy clouds Weather: Typically sunny and cold Cirrocumulus clouds are much smaller than most other types of clouds, and they are sometimes called cloudlets. They are found at high altitudes and are made of ice crystals. They often are arranged in parallel rows. They are one of the rarer types of clouds and usually don’t last long. Cirrostratus Image source: aivas14/Flickr Height: High Color: Transparent/white Shape: Wispy, but thicker than cirrus clouds Weather: Varies These are transparent, wispy clouds that cover most or all of the sky. The best identifier for cirrostratus clouds is a halo or ring of light surrounding the sun or moon. Cirrus Height: High Color: White Shape: Wispy or feathery Weather: May mean a warm front is approaching Wispy clouds located high in the atmosphere are likely cirrus clouds. They are thin and white with lots of blue sky visible. They can occur in fair weather or when a warm front or large storm is approaching. Cumulonimbus Height: Low (although can span all layers) Color: Pale to dark gray Shape: Dense and towering Weather: Thunderstorms Cumulonimbus are the classic â€Å"thunderstorm clouds†and are large towering clouds that are often dark in color. Seeing them is a sign that a storm is likely on its way. They can be very large, appearing like a mountain (sometimes with a flat top). Cumulus Height: Low Color: White Shape: Fluffy, tall, often described as looking similar to cauliflower Weather: Typically sunny The stereotypical puffy cloud you probably drew a lot of when you were a kid, cumulus clouds are dense individual clouds that are bright white on top and gray underneath. They typically appear earlier in the day when it’s sunny. Nimbostratus Image source: KNOW MALTA by Peter Grima/Flickr Height: Low Color: Dark gray Shape: Large thick layer Weather: Steady rain or snow Nimbostratus clouds form a thick, dark layer across the sky. They are often thick enough to blot out the sun. Like cumulonimbus clouds, they are associated with heavy precipitation, but, unlike cumulonimbus, you can’t pick out individual nimbostratus clouds. Stratocumulus Height: Low Color: White Shape: Fluffy Weather: Appear before or after a front/when there is weak convection in the atmosphere Stratocumulus clouds are somewhat similar to cumulus clouds but are flatter, thicker, and darker. There is less blue sky between the clouds, and the weather will appear more cloudy than sunny. Stratus Image source: Wikimedia commons Height: Low Color: Gray or white Shape: Featureless flat layer Weather: Gloomy weather, sometimes with light precipitation Similar to fog (but on the horizon instead of on the ground), stratus clouds are a gray featureless layer of clouds that cover all or most of the sky. Tips for Identifying Different Types of Clouds Even meteorologists can sometimes struggle with identifying certain clouds, so it helps to have a few tricks to fall back on. Use the following four tips to help you differentiate the various cloud types and figure out which type is currently in the sky. #1: Figure Out the Shape Typically, the easiest way to tell different types of clouds apart is by looking at their shape There are three main different cloud shapes, and they all look quite different from one another, so identifying the shape will help you narrow down your options easily before moving onto other steps and identifiers to determine which specific cloud type you’re looking at. Below are the three main cloud shapes (along with the cloud names) and the types of clouds that fall under them. Puffy (Cumulo-form) Cumulus Altocumulus Stratocumulus Cumulonimbus Cirrocumulus Thick layer (Strato-form) Stratus Altostratus Nimbostratus Wispy (Cirro-form) Cirrus Cirrostratus #2: Look at Where They Are in the Sky Once you’ve figured out the shape, the next step is to determine where the cloud is in the sky: low, mid, or high-level. This is a bit trickier than just deciding on shape and can take some practice to get good at it, but once you can reliably tell where a cloud is in the sky along with its shape, you often have enough info to correctly identify it. High-Level Cirrus Cirrostratus Cirrocumulus Mid-Level Altostratus Altocumulus Low-Level Stratus Stratocumulus Cumulus Nimbostratus Cumulonimbus (although can span all layers) #3: Consider the Weather When you’re trying to identify clouds, don’t just focus on the clouds themselves; remember to look at the rest of the sky. The current or expected weather can help you with cloud identification, since many clouds are associated with a particular type of weather. Sunny Weather Cirrocumulus Cumulus Gloom and/or Steady Precipitation Stratus Nimbostratus Altostratus Storms Cumulonimbus Variable Weather Stratocumulus Cirrus Cirrostratus Altocumulus #4: Know Tricks for Identifying Similar-Looking Clouds Even after you’ve sorted the kinds of clouds you’re looking at into the correct categories based on shape, height in the sky, and accompanying weather, you may still be struggling between a couple different cloud types. And it’s true, there are some cloud types that look very similar to each other. Below are some tips for differentiating between similar-looking cloud pairs. Cirrus vs Cirrostratus Both these cloud types have similar wispy shapes, but cirrostratus clouds cover much more of the sky compared to cirrus clouds. Cirrus clouds will have lots of blue sky accompanying them, while for cirrostratus clouds, little or no sky will be visible, and the sun will likely be behind the clouds (typically with a â€Å"halo† around it). Cumulus vs Stratocumulus Both of these clouds have a puffy shape, but stratocumulus clouds have a more flattened, thicker, and darker appearance compared to cumulus clouds, which look more like puffs of cotton. Altocumulus vs Stratocumulus These two kinds of clouds look similar, but they are different sizes. If you hold your hand up to the sky, a stratocumulus cloud will be about the size of your first, while an altocumulus cloud will be closer in size to your thumb. Stratus vs Nimbostratus vs Altostratus These three cloud types can be difficult to tell apart since they all have a similar shape. Below is a unique identifier for each one. Stratus: Cloud type lowest to the ground; just slightly higher than fog. Can cause light precipitation. Nimbostratus: The clichà © â€Å"rain† cloud; dark in color and accompanied by steady precipitation. Altostratus: Less thick and doesn’t produce precipitation. Summary: What Are the Types of Clouds? If can be difficult to keep track of cloud names and the main types of clouds when you’re not sure what you’re looking for. Fortunately, a bit of studying is all that is required to easily identify most clouds. There are ten main types of clouds: Altocumulus Altostratus Cirrocumulus Cirrostratus Cirrus Cumulonimbus Cumulus Nimbostratus Stratocumulus Stratus You can identify these different kinds of clouds in three main ways: Shape Height in sky Accompanying weather There are also various tips you can use to differentiate between two types of clouds that look similar. What's Next? Want to know the fastest and easiest ways to convert between Fahrenheit and Celsius? We've got you covered! Check out our guide to the best ways to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit (or vice versa). Are you also learning about dynamic equilibrium in your science class? We break this sometimes tricky concept down so it's easy to understand in our complete guide to dynamic equilibrium. Writing a research paper for school but not sure what to write about? Our guide to research paper topics has over 100 topics in ten categories so you can be sure to find the perfect topic for you. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Saturday, November 23, 2019

About the Influential Henry Hobson Richardson

About the Influential Henry Hobson Richardson Famous for designing massive stone buildings with semicircular Roman arches, Henry Hobson Richardson developed a late Victorian style that became known as Richardsonian Romanesque. Some people have argued that his architectural design is the first truly American style- that up to this point in American history, building designs were copied from what was being built in Europe. H.H. Richardsons 1877 Trinity Church in Boston, Massachusetts has been called one of the 10 Buildings That Changed America. Although Richardson himself designed few houses and public buildings, his style was copied throughout America. No doubt youve seen these buildings- the big, brownish red, rusticated stone libraries, schools, churches, row houses, and single-family homes of the wealthy. Background: Born: September 29, 1838 in Louisiana Died: April 26, 1886 in Brookline, Massachusetts Education: Public and private schools in New Orleans1859: Harvard College1860: Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris Famous Buildings: 1866-1869: Unity Church, Springfield, Massachusetts (Richardsons first commission)1883-1888: Allegheny County Courthouse, Pittsburgh, PA1872-1877: Trinity Church, Boston, MA1885-1887: Glessner House, Chicago, IL1887: Marshall Field Store, Chicago, IL About Henry Hobson Richardson: During his life, cut short by kidney disease, H.H. Richardson designed churches, courthouses, train stations, libraries, and other important civic buildings. Featuring semicircular Roman arches set in massive stone walls, Richardsons unique style became known as Richardsonian Romanesque. Henry Hobson Richardson is known as the First American Architect because he broke away from European traditions and designed buildings that stood out as truly original. Also Richardson was only the second American to receive formal training in architecture. The first was Richard Morris Hunt. The architects Charles F. McKim and Stanford White worked under Richardson for awhile, and their free-form Shingle Style grew out of Richardsons use of rugged natural materials and grand interior spaces. Other important architects influenced by Henry Hobson Richardson include Louis Sullivan, John Wellborn Root, and Frank Lloyd Wright. Richardsons Significance: He had a superb sense of rather monumental composition, an uncommon sensitivenss to materials, and a creative imagination in the way to use them. His stone detailing especially was unusually lovely, and it is not strange that his buildings were imitated far and wide. He was an independent planner as well, continually feeling for greater and greater originality....Richardsonian came in the popular mind to mean, not sensitivenss to material, nor independece of design, but rather the indefinite repetition of low, wide arches, intricate Byzantinelike ornament, or dark and somber colors.- Talbot Hamlin, Architecture through the Ages, Putnam, Revised 1953, p. 609 Learn More: H. H. Richardson: Complete Architectural Works by Jeffrey Karl Ochsner, MIT PressLiving Architecture: A Biography of H.H. Richardson by James F. OGorman, Simon SchusterThe Architecture of H. H. Richardson and His Times by Henry-Russell Hitchcock, MIT PressThree American Architects: Richardson, Sullivan, and Wright, 1865-1915 by James F. OGorman, University Of Chicago PressHenry Hobson Richardson and His Works by Mariana Griswold Van Rensselaer, DoverHenry Hobson Richardson. A Genius for Architecture by Margaret H. Floyd, Photographs by Paul Rocheleau, Monacelli PressH. H. Richardson: The Architect, His Peers, and Their Era by Maureen Meister, MIT Press

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Modern Business in Comparative Perspective Essay - 11

Modern Business in Comparative Perspective - Essay Example The managerial enterprise concept has been evolved from the â€Å"Theory of Firms† as proposed by Chandler. The theory of firms is linked with various managerial concepts as used in the organisations. The theory is developed with respect to large firms to explain the reason behind success. The Chandler’s model comprises of economic components that explains the causes behind the existence of large managerial enterprises. In order to develop long-term success it is essential to expand organisational capabilities with respect to professional skills. According to the â€Å"Visible hand† concept developed by Chandler the large firms exists because of increased investment in managerial hierarchy of the organisation. Such investments results into productivity gain that in turn results success for the organisation (Bucheli & et. al., 2010). It has been further stated in the theory that managers of an organisation face difficulties in predicting the market demand. The the ory also analyses the natures of investment made by the firms. According to the concept proposed by Chandler the firms should invest in production facilities to exploit the economies of scale. Apart from the need for technological development, it also focussed for the success of the large firms in the long run. A further investment in marketing and distribution of product is essential to raise the volume of sales with respect to the production capacity of the firms. The higher authority of the organisation takes the investment decisions for greater effectiveness.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Tourism destinations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Tourism destinations - Essay Example Introduction Tourism activities all over the world take place at particular destinations. Destinations are very important parts of tourism since they determine whether the country is exciting to tourists or not. Most tourists get attracted to various destinations in the world through destination marketing organizations. In Australia, the marketing of various tourist destinations is done by an organization known as tourism Australia. A destination may refer to any location in any country. However, tourists may define destinations to mean those naturally attractive sites that are pleasing to explore. Destination can be a specific geographical area or a combination of several locations. Further, in the perspective of a tourist, destination can be defined as any area that has appealing attributed and services that would enable them choose the place for their leisure purposes. To succeed in destination marketing, organization such as tourism Australia should undertake a thorough analysis of the market. They should also determine other competitive destinations that can pose challenges to the Australian tourism sector. The analysis of the market should include the assessment of factors such as hotel accommodations, nature, historic sites and other attractions in the tourist destination. Other aspects that must be considered by the destination marketing organizations include security and the cleanliness of the place (Svarcas, Cass & Australian National Audit Office 5). Ningaloo Reef and Shark Bay, Western Australia Ningaloo reef is an exciting place to visit in Australia. It is also one of the best tourist attraction sites where tourists can watch as swim with the world’s largest fish known as shark. The sharks congregate in this place shortly after the collection of coral spawning; this takes place in every third month of the year. Ningaloo reef is located in the North West region of Australia and is approximately 1200km from Perth. In addition, the reef is abo ut 260 km in length and is the only reef in Australia that is located close to a landmass. The reef is also famous for its ability to allow for the feeding and the mating of sharks. This reefs provides a favorable breeding ground to ensure that the number of sharks do not reduce to extinction levels. There are several species of fish as coral that constitute the Ningaloo reef which attract several tourists to the site every year (Ningaloo par 1). Shark Bay Shark bay has one of the best coastal scenery and islands that provide exciting leisure adventures to tourists. Shark bay is located in the western part off Australia and has an area of about 4,800 km2. Other exciting species of animals that live in Shark bay include the Dugong and the Stromatolites. Stromatolites are members of the algae family that is said to be some of the ancient forms of life the world. The shark bay Tourist attraction is an important site in providing habitat for several endangered species of animals. Some o f the endangered species of animals in Australia are actually found in this tourist site. The endangered species of animals include the Boodie, Rufous, Hare-Wallaby, Banded Hare Wallaby, the shark bay mouse and the Western barred. These species of animals

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Working in the kitchen area Essay Example for Free

Working in the kitchen area Essay The advert could also include other material that might attract a wider net of suitable candidates. For example, it might briefly outline the philosophy of the organisation, its positive attitude to disabled people, or its commitment to family friendly policies.  In general, the advert should be presented so that it captures reader attention, arouses interest in the company, creates desire and incites readers to action. A good advertisement will attract prospective candidates but deter those who would be unsuitable to meet the specifications of the job. It is also essential that the job advert conforms with equal opportunities legislation. There are several different methods used by businesses to compile a short list of candidates. Most typically, applicants are asked to return curriculum vitae (CV), a completed application form or a letter of application. Sometimes they are asked to supply two, and occasionally all three, of these different means of job application.  These applications are then used to assess the strengths and weaknesses of applicants, which allow the business to draw up a short list to go through to the final stage of the selection process. At this point, there is a further piece of recruitment documentation used within the interview process a form of recording and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of each candidate during the interview. This is considered as part of an in depth look at interview techniques. The whole interview process is very important for McDonalds because they want their organisation to attract and recruit the highest calibre people available.  Having recruited them its crucial that McDonalds then go on to develop and motivate them, meaning they can perform to their highest potential. McDonalds are keen to give recognition to their staff and reward them according, this then motivates them to work harder and achieve more with McDonalds, this is done by giving them a employee discount card, they also give them service awards every 3, 5, 10, 20 years you have stayed with McDonalds, each time they will get something special, such as a holiday trip, more time off work, McDonalds will then hope that this scheme will keep employees on board for many years, as theres always something else for the employee to achieve, having employees stay longer for McDonalds is also a priority so for them, this is because it saves a lot of money as they dont have to go through the recruiting and training process, for employees to stay longer they will try to recruit friends or family members of existing employees. Another scheme they use to give recognition and to motivate staff is employee of the month / year awards. This rewards consistent hard workers by giving extended holidays and by also putting their name, picture and McDonalds location on a plaque with other contenders for the award, McDonalds know there are other fast foods stores potential employees could join, so thats the reason why McDonalds offer competitive pay and benefits to their staff, for instance in the first year alone McDonalds offer 3 pay reviews, so if a member of staff has excelled they will get an pay rise as an incentive to work, added to this they also get a private healthcare and free life assurance after 1 year. At McDonalds the staff can become bored due to the repetitiveness of the work, therefore McDonalds need to ensure that their employees are motivated and there is good morale, otherwise they can potentially suffer of poor performance, as a result poor performance can lose the business a lot of money and may deter customers away from there branch. So to make sure employees are happy with their job McDonalds may consider introducing job rotation to the member of staff if they feel he/she is capable. E.g. more outgoing people are more suited to working on the tills and checking over customers, while less talkative or those who can handle pressure are better suited to working in the kitchen area.  Motivating staff isnt just about incentives, it has much to do with the way employers treat and manage staff.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Brave New World :: essays research papers

Brave New World by Aldous Huxley Aldous Huxley was born in Surray, England on July 26, 1894. He belonged to a dis-tinguished British family, which included T.H. Huxley, an famous scientist and hu-manist; and Julian Huxley, a philosopher of science. Aldous Huxley went to Balliol College, Oxford. He wanted to become a doctor, but an eye infection blinded him, and prevented him from finishing his studies. Huxley had to quit for some time because of his eye infection. He did exercises for his eyes, and with self-discipline eventually recovered from most of the infection and could some-what see. Huxley resumed his studies at Oxford, and accomplished a degree in 1916. At first Huxley tried to be journalist. But in 1921, he began writing poetry and short stories. There after, he began writing essays and novels. He received the Award of Merit for the Novel from the American Academy of Arts and Letters in the year 1959. His most famous book, "Brave New World", was published in 1932. In the "brave new world" of 632 A. F. (After Ford), universal human happiness has been achieved. Control of reproduction, genetic engineering, conditioning--especially with repetitive messages during sleep--and a perfect pleasure drug called "Soma" are the cornerstones of the new society. Religion, thinking and loneliness have been abolished. Reproduction has been removed from the womb and placed on the con-veyor belt, where reproductive workers tinker with the embryos to produce various grades of human beings, ranging from the super-intelligent Alpha Pluses down to the dwarfed semi-moron Epsilons. Each class is conditioned to love its type of work and its place in society; for example, Epsilons are supremely happy running elevators. Outside of their work, people spend their lives in constant pleasure. This involves consuming (continually buying new things, whether they need them or not), participating in elaborate sports, and free sex. While uninhibited sex is universal and considered socially constructive, love, marriage, and parenthood are viewed as obscene. The story concerns Bernard, an alpha whose programming is a bit off--he is discon-tented and desires to spend time alone just thinking or looking at the stars. At one point he takes Lenina on a vacation to the savage reservation in New Mexico. There he discovers John (the Savage), son of Linda who had visited the reservation more than 20 years previously and was accidentally left behind. When she discovered she was pregnant (the ultimate humiliation!), she had to remain among the savages.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Hellfire and bloody damnation Essay

The Crucible is largely concerned with the abuse and misuse of power in Salem. Discuss this with references to any three characters. In this essay I intend to explore the abuse and misuse of power in Salem with references to three characters. The three characters that I will refer to are Reverend Parris, Thomas Putnam and Abigail Williams. Reverend Parris is the pastor of the church in Salem. He is the father of Betty and the uncle of Abigail Williams. He believes that he is being persecuted and that the townspeople do not respect his position as a man of God. Examples to support these claims are when Parris is asking about his wood, and arguing over his salary, he then goes to say â€Å"I am not used to this poverty;.. Why am I being persecuted here? † Reverend Parris also believes there is a faction and a party in the church which makes him seem very paranoid about the people around him. The towns people also do not respect him as a man of God because Proctor says â€Å"to hear him preach only hellfire and bloody damnation† about the services that are held in Salem where Parris preaches. Many of the other towns people say that they ‘quail to bring their children’ because of the content of what is said during services. Parris is a materialistic and selfish person. He secures his desires in the town by preaching fire and brimstone until the people give in. An example of this is when he preached for twenty weeks until he got golden candlesticks instead of the pewter ones made by Francis Nurse. John Proctor says, â€Å"it hurt my prayer† for him to think that when he â€Å"look to heaven and see my money glaring at his elbows† because Parris demanded money ever since he became the pastor of Salem. This is a misuse of power and a misuse of his status as a man of God. As a man of god Parris should be grateful for what the towns people have to offer and what they are prepared to give in to the Church as an act of charity. The townspeople have ousted the last few pastors and Parris fears that he may be next. He feels that he is constantly being persecuted wherever he goes despite his efforts to win people and God to his side. â€Å"There is either obedience or the church will burn like Hell is burning! † Parris tells to Proctor as he demands the deed to his house and preaches fire and brimstone regarding whatever he is after until he has it. It is only too easy for him to believe the girls because not to believe them would mean that the trouble would be in his own house. Betty and Abigail are his family and to have liars in his family will give him a bad name as he is a man of God and should have disciplined his daughter and niece to behave and do what they are told. He is more worried about his own reputation than his daughter’s health. If he cannot control his own household, he may not be trusted with an entire village. He considers himself as being higher in society than every one else, and believes that people should ask his permission to shut a door. He looks down at children and treats them as lower class citizens and thinks they should be thankful for being permitted to â€Å"walk straight, eyes slightly lowered, arms at the sides, and mouth shut until bidden to speak. † There is a large emphasis on purity in the lives of the people of Salem, they were not permitted to read a novel, only Bibles. They thought that theatre was a ‘vain enjoyment’ and there was not to be any Christmas celebrations. All holidays of work was to be used to concentrate even more upon prayer. There is a lot of imagery of darkness and dirt representing sin and evil. Reverend Parris for example, questions his niece Abigail’s purity by saying; â€Å"Your name in the town-it is entirely white, is it not? † She argues that her name is not soiled. The people of Salem are obsessed with preserving the perceived cleanliness of their souls. Parris is so obsessed with keeping his name ‘white’ that he hides the fact that he knows that the girls are only lying and he goes along with the girl’s childish games of accusation. This is an example of misuse of power because Reverend Parris has the power to put a stop to the girls but to keep his name clean he pressures the girls to give more names. Thomas Putnam is a very vindictive man. He is the husband of Ann Putnam, and father to Ruth. He is a powerful man in the village with a long family line. He is the eldest son of the richest man in the village and regards himself to be the most intellectual superior of the people around him. He forces his way in whatever matters benefit him and becomes extremely bitter when he doesn’t succeed. He became very bitter when he was turned down blatantly by the village people for one of its more important offices, as he was deeply interested in parish affairs. Mr and Mrs Putnam will not believe Rebecca Nurse when she says that is only a ‘silly season’ that the girls are going through. But then to compensate the Putnams blame Rebecca Nurse for the deaths of their children. Mrs Putnam then goes to say â€Å"There are wheels within wheels in this village, and fires within fires! † meaning that there is more going on in the village that they know of and that the truth is being hidden. Instead of accepting that they have problems of their own, the Putnams turn their anger towards the other villagers and accuse others. Putnam resents any one with more acreage than him and any one of a higher status. An example of his misuse of power is when he is accused of coercing his daughter to accuse people, for example, George Jacobs, in order to gain their forfeited land. Putnam is abusing his power and also his daughters power as she can accuse any one without being doubted of what she is saying is true. Abigail Williams is the orphaned niece of Reverend Parris. She was once the lover of John Proctor but was turned out when his wife discovered the affair. She is extremely jealous of Elizabeth Proctor and uses her power in the town to rid herself of Elizabeth as well as any others who have insulted her in the past. Proctor tells to the men of the court in his last attempt to save his wife and prove the dishonesty of the girls â€Å"She thinks to dance with me on my wife’s grave! And well she might, for I thought of her softly. God help me, I lusted, and there is a promise in such sweat. But it is a whore’s vengeance, and you must see it. † He reveals Abigail’s motivation to see Elizabeth Proctor condemned: Abigail cannot let go of her obsession with Proctor. Elizabeth Proctor tells her husband that â€Å"Spoke or silent, a promise is surely made. † explaining why Abigail would continue to pursue him though he had ended the affair. She tells him that by sleeping with her, he made a commitment to her, at least in her eyes. She is the leader of the girls. When the girls talk about admitting to dancing in the woods Abigail tells Betty and Mary Warren â€Å"I will bring a pointy reckoning† who initially express fear about their actions in the woods and express a desire to confess. Abigail asserts her power over the girls immediately so as to ensure that she is not exposed. Abigail is a dissembler who is also ruthless and aggressive due to her horrifying child hood. Wen she was a child she saw Indians smash her parents’ heads on the pillow next to hers. This had had quite a large affect on the way she thinks and has made her more careless and free in the way she behaves. She then goes on to say † I have seen some reddish work done at night, and I can make you wish you have never seen the sun go down. † This scares the girls so much that they dare not speak a word of what they did in the woods. She is also very manipulative and plays on people’s feelings to get what she wants. She makes herself seem concerned of the other girls health but she is only concerned in what she gets out of being good. She abused her power by convincing every one that Tituba, who is from Barbados, conjured the devil. As Tituba is black and from another country no body believes her and she gives in and admits to be conjuring the devil. The people of Salem and the majority of the people of that time were racist and thought of themselves as a higher class than black people; the same as Parris feels towards children. Abigail gains revenge on the people in the village that she has hated or envied especially Elizabeth Proctor. Another example of Abigail’s misuse of power is when she deviously puts a needle into her stomach and into a doll’s stomach and accuses Elizabeth of putting it there. The story she made up fits in well with what happens because the placement of the needle is precise because Abigail saw Marry Warren make the doll and put the needle there for safe keeping. Every one in the room at that time believe Abigail, because she suddenly let out a loud scream and the people around wouldn’t think that she would do such a thing to herself. Abigail also convinces the court that Marry Warren is lying when she admits to making the doll and putting the needle it the doll. Abigail then pretends to be cold and witched by Marry Warren because she tells the court that it was only pretence that the said they saw the devil and also saw others with the devil. The court believes Abigail as well because her skin is cold and she tells the court that she feels a cold breeze. There is a very large amount of misuse of power in Salem and the above is only a little. The accused in Salem were essentially condemned before they went to trial. Those who decided to live by admitting to witchcraft were ostracized by society much as those thought to be communists were blacklisted. People as a group can get caught up in the moment and act in an irrational manner. The events in Salem are a solemn reminder of what can happen when we allow ourselves to be carried along with the crowd. We must think hard about how we can preserve our system of justice so as not to risk repeating such an awful moment in history.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Bahram Ahmadi

A programme of work for the implementation of a strategy is a large set of coherent guidelines that include several activities in the program so as to achieve certain objectives. It involves several processes including organising, coordination, developing, designing, training, building, developing, growing, closing, etc. In any program strategy for a project, the objectives of the organisation play a very important role.The project program strategy gives importance to the manager that would be responsible for carrying out the operations of the project, the timing and the nature of the activities, and the dealing with specific tastes of the customers. Project program strategy is highly specific to a project. However, there may be more than one strategy to be employed to meet the objectives of the project. During the planning stages, the managers would sit down to develop a strategy.These strategies are developed so as to be appropriate with the characteristics of the organisation, hum an resources, geographical location, social features, politics, etc (Walter, 1999). For each project in an organisation, the program of work (workflow as such) is managed independently. The project manager would be looking at several limitations in the resources, including time, money and the scope.A project may fail due to several reasons (including deficiency of resources, lack of goals, conflict issues, problems with the customers, etc), and the manager would have to anticipate these problems right during the initiation of the project and ensure that a problem-solving process is enabled. Each project manager would be determining the ongoing processes in the project through monitoring and evaluation of the performances.The project manager would have to adopt different strategies so that the organisation could achieve certain objectives and hence reach a desired goal (Brentani, 2003, Walter, 1999, University of Texas, 2007 & Rad, 2006). The process of developing a strategy for the project is very simple. The managers would have to sit down and decide the various objectives that need to be achieved by the project. The means of achieving such objectives need to be discussed. The manager should involve other parties including the administration, the portfolio manager and the stakeholders.It may be very difficult to come to a consensus if too many people are involved in the process. This is because several people may have different values, outlines and approaches. The process of setting up the objectives, determining the goals and the ways of achieving them is very tedious and could take a long time. The manager should associate the strategy needed to achieve the objectives. During the final stages, the manager would have to also ensure that the strategy/ies adopted help to meet the objectives (Walter, 1999)On the other hand, portfolio of the project management is an approach in which various projects in an organisation are treated as smaller portions of a much l arger venture (with respect to investment and resource allocations). The project portfolio management would be functional right from the initiation of the project to the very completion. Certain instruments are utilised in the portfolio project management to help the managers (including planning, allocation of resources, evaluation, monitoring, analysing, standardization, etc).This can be considered as a centralised instrument required to effectively handle several projects in an organisation and to study the performance of several projects that may run in an organisation. It can be utilised to compare and contrast various projects. One very important feature of project portfolio management is to determine the costs, expenditure, benefits, investments and other features of the project. In recent years portfolio management has turned out to be a very important aspect of planning, especially in IT firms.IT companies would be managing several projects and programs running in various pa rts of the world through an effective portfolio management system. Studies conducted in the past have demonstrated a little less than half of the IT companies are unable to meet their targets due to inefficient portfolio management (Oracle, 2007, Stanford University, 2007 & UMT Consulting Services, 2007). The portfolio manager mix of projects should be such that the resources of the organisation are utilised effectively.They should be selected in such a way that the risks are significantly reduced. The portfolio manager is in a good position to priortize the projects and accordingly allocates the resources. He should be able to select the project based on their ability to fulfil certain criteria (Crow, 2004 & Oracle, 2007). A portfolio management system would be much broader and would include several other processes such as defining the opportunities, bringing those projects into the focus that would be able to achieve some objectives, monitoring of the projects, etc.Portfolio manag ement should be considered to be an art rather than a science. Frequently, portfolio managers would have to work with the fund managers of the organisation, so that there is effective use of the money. Portfolio management is frequently utilised in several developed, and slowly developing nations are moving towards effective portfolio management (Crow, 2004, Brentani, 2003 & Rad, 2006). A portfolio management system is often utilised by an organisation to bring about success in the project (as many projects could be effectively be handled simultaneously).A portfolio may be funds or resources and can be utilised by the organisation to increase returns over a very short period of time. An organisation would observe that the resources available at any point of time would be less than the amount of resources required by a particular project. Hence, one of the main objectives of the portfolio managers would be to effectively manage the resources of several ongoing projects. The managemen t of the organisation needs to sit and figure out what the commitment of the organisation would actually be.As management of an organisation is a dynamic process, this exercise has to be done from time to time. Besides, actually managing several resources including human resources, logistics, IT, support systems, etc, time also needs to be handled. The management should be very much interested in ensuring that the portfolio management processes are enabled properly. The organisation should ensure that the interests of each and every protject are enabled. If a project is not performing properly, the ideal plan would be to discontinue it, if the organisation does not have the resources to handle it.A proper flow of information of the project should exist so that the process of monitoring is effective. It is very important that the projects be managed in a formal and official manner. The data that would be flowing would be much more accurate and effective in ensuring the objectives of the organisation are met. There should be a clear flow of data between the programs, projects and the portfolios (Brentani, 2003, Walter, 1999, & Rad, 2006). In the portfolio management, all the projects that are ongoing in the organisation are chosen and a standardised fashion of evaluating them is utilised.Portfolio management is very much required for the production, development and the utilisation of ideas and intellectual property in various projects in an organisation. The portfolio manager would be performing various tasks such as reallocating and promoting the staff members (as per their characteristics) in various projects. Thus it can be seen that if an organisation has a very good portfolio manager, he would be using the human resources very efficiently (UMT Consulting Group, 2007). The entire framework of portfolio management involves three steps, namely creating, selecting and managing.The goals and the strategies to be adopted in the portfolio management are made keepi ng in mind the characteristics of the organisation. Accordingly, new opportunities that are present should be identified and resources allocated. The objectives have to be prioritised and the tasks and activities that are to be done are selected. Finally, it is also important that the project be managed in the most efficient and organised manner (UMT Consulting Group, 2007). Many organisations do not have any portfolio management process running.Only the companies that feel that research frequently perform it and development is vital for the well being of the company. Only about 10 % of all organisations in the industry do have a strong portfolio management system in place. If a portfolio management system were not in place, then all the projects in the organisation would be given equal amount of importance or authorisation. This would result in all the projects that are going on in the organisation are given equal amount of resources (Rad, 2006).In an organisation, the project or t he program manager would ensure that the project could achieve its objectives. On the other hand, the portfolio manager would ensure that the operational activities and the maintenance programs in the organisation are smooth and functional. The team leader and the middle scale managers usually do the project management. On the other hand, the higher staff members including the administration do the portfolio management.The higher management of the organisation would be concentrating on the portfolio, rather than the functioning of each individual project (Brentani, 2003 & Rad, 2006). In a project or a program management, the team leaders and the manager would ensure that the staff members meet the specific goals of the project. The organisations main aim would be to deliver quality products or services. The portfolio manager would instead be ensuring that the goals of each and every project are in tune with that of the organisation.In the project management, a lot of importance is g iven to completing the tasks on time and ensuring that costs are limited. On the other hand, the portfolio management would be concentrating to a very less extent on fulfilling completion tasks on time and using the minimal amount of resources. The members of the portfolio management team would include the leader, the stakeholder, advocates, project managers and the office managers (Brentani, 2003, Stanford University, 2007 & Rad, 2006). The project or the program management should work in coordination with the portfolio management.Several processes in the project such as selection of the resources, prioritisation of the targets of the project, and the resource allocation should be performed in the most appropriate manner. The decision-making of the project needs to be very active and dynamic in nature. Informed decision-making and resource allocation is very important for the project to function properly. The project or program manager has to ensure that certain structures or a fra mework in the organisation is in place before the functional activities can be carried out.The project environment should be such that the objectives kept in mind can be achieved. The program manager and the portfolio manager should ensure that an environment is created that would be conducive to achieving the objectives of the organisation. The project members should function as a team so that the objectives are met. The team working on the project should have the skill, experience, knowledge and the competence to carry out the tasks of the project.One of the main reasons why projects do not succeed is because they may take long time to produce the results or may consume a lot of the resources. To ensure the project is effective (to ensure completion of the tasks) and efficient (completion of the tasks with appropriate use of the resources) in its objectives, it is very much needed that both the project management and the portfolio management work in close coordination with each ot her (Brentani, 2003 & Rad, 2006). The management activities of the portfolio management would be repetitive in nature.On the other hand, the management activities of the project management would be cyclic in nature. If the portfolio manager can take care of the functioning of all the projects, then the organisation can be considered to be very competitive. If a project does well, it would have an impact on the functioning of the organisation, but also on other projects (Brentani, 2003 & Rad, 2006). Portfolio management would definitely help the organisation to grow, expand and develop. The wealth of the organisation would increase with an effective portfolio management strategy.The portfolio manager would be bringing in various assets (including infrastructure, support systems, financial resources, human resources, logistics, etc) and securities into the organisation. He would be considering investing in various ways including growth stock investing and value stock investing. From t ime to time, the objectives of the organisation would vary and hence, it is the duty of the portfolio managers to vary the investment pattern in the organisation. A greater amount of flexibility would be required.The management style of the portfolio managers should also vary depending on the needs (Brentani, 2003). A portfolio manager and the program/project manager would be concentrating on different characteristics of the project. The portfolio manager would be using the PPM (project portfolio management) tools, whereas the project manager would be using the single-project management tools. The PPM tools would ensure that the functioning becomes more and more efficient, the costs are effectively distributed and the profits of the organisation are increased.It also ensures that the organisation is following a particular framework whilst managing the projects (Brentani, 2003 & UMT, 2007). Each project has to be carefully planned and implemented in the organisation. The entire proje ct management should be done in phases. The project management tools would ensure that the staff members make effective use of the resources in the organisation and ensure completion of the targets that are required within the project. The project manager would have to motivate the staff so that the work is improved in quality and the project is able to achieve its targets.Only if the management practises of the project are appropriate, could it be able to achieve its objectives (Free Management Library, 2007, Brentani, 2003 & Rad, 2006). The program strategy would be concerning a greater amount of internal issues with relation to the project, whereas the project portfolio management would be concerning the external issues. It is necessary that the portfolio mangers align their objectives as per the strategic objectives of each program.The portfolio processes should be customised to suit other management processes that would be functional in the organisation, simultaneously. Both pr ogram strategy management and portfolio management involve interacting with the clients, and hence demonstrate the importance of clients with respect to management and its processes (Stanford University, 2007). References: Brentani, C. (2003), Portfolio Management, Elsevier, Philadelphia http://books. google. com/books? id=8LJrilH_eEEC&pg=PT14&dq=portfolio+management&sig=x-IYrHl67RaZTocKedqv_fTBX3w#PPT16,M1Crow, K. (2004), A Practical Approach To Portfolio Management, [Online], Available: http://www. npd-solutions. com/portfolio. html, [Accessed: 2007, August 18]. Free Management Library (2007), Project Management, [Online], Available: http://www. managementhelp. org/plan_dec/project/project. htm, [Accessed: 2007, August 18]. Oracle (2007), Peoplesoft Enterprise Project Portfolio Management, [Online], Available: http://www. oracle. com/media/peoplesoft/en/pdf/datasheets/e_epm_ds_projportmgmt_41005. pdf, [Accessed: 2007, August 18]. Rad, P.F. & Levin, G. (2006), Project Portfolio Man agement, IIL, New York. http://books. google. com/books? id=PUavbSMdP7QC&pg=PA7&dq=project+portfolio+management&sig=Nwscmbzr4s8B_X2cHG26-1hiW9Y#PPA10,M1 Stanford Advanced Project Management (2007), Mastering the Project Portfolio, [Online], Available: http://apm. stanford. edu/courses/MPP. html, [Accessed: 2007, August 18]. Stanford University (2007), Portfolio Management Team, [Online], Available: http://www. stanford. edu/dept/its/projects/PMO/files/pmt. html, [Accessed: 2007, August 18].Walter, S. L. (1999), Defining and developing program strategies, [Online], Available: http://www. sil. org/lingualinks/literacy/PlanALiteracyProgram/DefiningAndDevelopingProgramSt. htm, [Accessed: 2007, August 18]. Walter, S. L. (1999), Defining program objectives, [Online], Available: http://www. sil. org/lingualinks/literacy/PlanALiteracyProgram/DefiningProgramObjectives. htm, [Accessed: 2007, August 18]. UMT Consulting Services (2007), PPM – Project Portfolio Management Consulting, [Onl ine], Available: http://www.umt. com/site/PPM-Consulting_60. html? PHPSESSID=9917b5631be27d19dbb1d077885e2866, [Accessed: 2007, August 18]. UMT Consulting Group (2007), What's Really Driving the Importance of Portfolio Management? (DM Review, February 27, 2004), [Online], Available: http://www. umt. com/site/Why-Portfolio-Management_4. html, [Accessed: 2007, August 18]. University of Texas –DIIA (2007), Project management tutorial, [Online], Available: http://www. utexas. edu/academic/cit/howto/tutorials/project/index. html, [Accessed: 2007, August.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Bipolar Mental Disorder A Bio

Bipolar Mental Disorder A Bio Introduction First developed by George Engel, a cardiologist, biopsychosocial approach to bipolar mental disorder suggests that a number of factors are interlinked in respect to the cause, progress and promotion of the condition. According to the model, biological, social and psychological factors contribute to the disease.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Bipolar Mental Disorder: A Bio-Psychosocial Approach specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In simple terms, the model argues that the mind and body systems are interlinked ad interdependent, with similar factors affecting each of these aspects of human (Miklowitz, Richards, George, Frank, et al., 2010). The approach is a straightforward technique that attempts to provide intervention protocols from more than one perspective. In general, the approach includes pharmacotherapy, psychological and social intervention perspectives. In this context, a pharmacotherapy i s enhanced with active collaboration with the patient to determine the type of medications needed. It is also coupled with an adjunctive psychotherapy for enhancing illness adaptations, medical adherence, interpersonal relationships as well as job functioning. However, biopsychosocial approach involves recognition of the roles of stress within the course of outcomes. In addition, the psychosocial interventions have the potential to influence these processes in a positive manner. The purpose of this paper is to develop an in-depth review of literature in determining important findings about biopsychosocial approach to the condition. Pharmacotherapy: current and frequently prescribed medications Effectiveness In biopsychosocial, a number of biological aspects are linked to the cause and progression of the disease. Thus, biological approach to the disease involves application of pharmacological agents that target biological factors involved in the disease cause and progression. For exa mple, risperidone and olanzapine are chemical drugs used to treat patients whose conditions are â€Å"atypical antipsychotic† in nature. These drugs are administered in doses of 2-4mg/day and 15-20mg/day respectively. They tend to manage such symptoms as aggression, suicidal attempts and devastating consequences of impulsivity. Benzodiazepines are effective in calming manic problems, soothing anxiety as well as reducing insomnia.Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to the American Psychiatric Association (2012), mood disability is one of the most common conditions in patients with bipolar mental disorder. Therefore, a pharmacological agent must be used to stabilize the patient’s moods. According to the American Psychiatric Association (2012), lithium is one of the most effective agents of mood stabilization. However, lithium has some side effects. Anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine, sodium valproate, lamotrigine and topiramate have been used to treat the condition since 1970s. According to Post, Ketter, Uhde and Ballenger (2007), Carbamazepine is important in managing manic episodes because there are some evidences that it effectively manages rapid-cycling disorder. However, it is less effective than lithium. In addition, it may lead to dependency. Sodium valproate is also effective in treating manic episodes, but it has side effects equal to those of carbamazepine. According to Geddes, Calabrese and Goodwin (2008), lamotrigine has some efficacy in managing depression, but other studies have shown that it has no benefit in patients with rapid cycling disorder. Possible side effects Despite their effectiveness, these pharmacological agents have a number of side effects, which limits their use in treating bipolar mental disorder. For example, benzodiazepines and other anticonvulsants work through sedating and muscle -relaxation actions. Thus, they cause dizziness, drowsiness and decline in the levels of alertness and brain concentration (Geddes, Calabrese Goodwin, 2008). Cognitive impairments may result from long-term use of these agents. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) has similar side effects. Lithium has a number of side effects such as hair loss, weakness of muscles, hand tremor, acne, reduced thyroid action, impaired memory, diarrhea and increased rate of urination. Psychotherapy Biopsychosocial approach emphasizes on psychotherapy to manage the condition. In simple terms, it involves a talk therapy in which patients work closely with therapists to discuss the condition and problems with an aim of learning new skills (Scott, Paykel, Morriss, Bentall et al., 2006). Patients are given an opportunity to talk about their experiences and gain insight into thinking processes that cause or contribute to depression and mood swings (Miklowitz, Richards, George, Frank, et al., 2010). In addition, they exp lore their previous experiences and their contributions to the condition. It also gives patients an opportunity to learn new skills in practically coping with the condition, which decreases the probability of developing depressive episodes in future (Moltz, 2003). Although psychotherapy is an effective intervention protocol in managing bipolar disorder, it is not a unified field because there are different methods involved (Miklowitz, Richards, George, Frank, et al., 2010).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Bipolar Mental Disorder: A Bio-Psychosocial Approach specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Psychotherapists apply several approaches and techniques. However, some major schools of thought dominate the field. According to Moltz (2003), family systems, psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral methods are common in the field. In addition, humanistic schools are sometimes effective, but to a lesser extent. Each of th ese methods has a perspective on the factors that cause bipolar disorder and the best way to solve these problems (Scott, Paykel, Morriss, Bentall et al., 2006). Nevertheless, all types of psychotherapy seek to provide patients with information about depression and help them understand, express as well as control moods and feelings in an effective manner (Moltz, 2003). In addition, they help them transform their negative perspectives and thoughts, behaviors, attitudes as well as relationships with other individuals (Moltz, 2003). Psychological and developmental issues related to origins of the disorder In biopsychosocial approach to bipolar mental disorder, biology, psychology and sociology are important fields in determining psychological and developmental issues that cause the condition (Moltz, 2003). From a psychological perspective, a number of theories have been developed to explain the cause and origins of the problem (Miklowitz, Richards, George, Frank, et al., 2010). In thes e theories, personality, interpersonal relationships and history of experiences are important factors. Psychodynamic models were developed in the early part of the 20th century. They ocused on interrelationships of the mind with mental, motivational forces and emotions (Moltz, 2003). These theories were based on the notion that the conscious and unconscious parts of the human mind may be in conflict with each other, which causes repression (Miklowitz, Richards, George, Frank, et al., 2010). An individual must resolve early developmental conflicts in order to cope with repression and achieve a stable mental condition. Inability to resolve these problems results into mental failure such as bipolar disorder. According to Moltz (2003), behavioral theory argues that dysfunctional behavior such as depression comes from human contact with the environment (through learning). This means that it can also be resolved through unlearning. Finally, the sociology of depression involves cultural co ntext in which the patients reside, grow or work (Miklowitz, Richards, George, Frank, et al., 2010). It also examines the social stressors that individuals experience in their lives. A branch of medicine known as ethnomedicine attempts to determine the causes of illnesses based on cultures and ethnicities (Moltz, 2003).Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It suggests that cultural and ethnic differences in people’s focus on themselves and individual place within the social and cultural hierarchy are linked to the cause, rate and progress of depression (Scott, Paykel, Morriss, Bentall et al., 2006). Both individualistic and collectivistic orientations of an individual to a given culture are important causes of depressions in humans (Scott, Paykel, Morriss, Bentall et al., 2006). Conclusion This review of literature indicates that biopsychosocial model is an effective technique of managing bipolar disorder because it approaches the condition from multiple directions. It includes pharmacotherapy, psychological and sociological dimensions. This implies that it attempts to treat the symptoms while also addressing the social, environmental and mental causes of the disease. References American Psychiatric Association. (2012). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Gedd es, J. R., Calabrese, J. R., Goodwin, G. M. (2008). Lamotrigine for treatment of bipolar depression: Independent meta-analysis and meta-regression of individual patient data from five randomised trials. The British Journal of Psychiatry 194(1), 4–9 Miklowitz, D. J., Richards, J. A., George, E. L., Frank, E., et al. (2010). Integrated family and individual therapy for bipolar disorder: results of a treatment development study. J Clin Psychiatry, 64(2), 182-91. Moltz, D. A. (2003). Bipolar disorder and the family: An integrative model. Family process, 32(4), 409-423. Post, R. M., Ketter, T. A., Uhde, T., Ballenger, J. C. (2007). Thirty years of clinical experience with carbamazepine in the treatment of bipolar illness: Principles and practice. CNS Drugs 21(1), 47–71. Scott, J. A. N., Paykel, E., Morriss, R., Bentall, R., et al. (2006). Cognitive–behavioural therapy for severe and recurrent bipolar disorders Randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psy chiatry, 188(4), 313-320.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Homemade Non-Toxic White Face Paint Recipe

Homemade Non-Toxic White Face Paint Recipe Many commercial face paints contain chemicals you dont want, such as heavy metals or allergens. Here is a recipe for a homemade white face paint you can make that uses natural, non-toxic ingredients. White Face Paint Materials You only need a few common household materials to make your own white face paint. 2 tablespoons solid white shortening5 teaspoons cornstarch1 teaspoon white flour3-5 drops glycerin Make the Face Paint Mix the cornstarch and flour together.Use a fork to blend in the shortening.Slowly mix in the glycerin until you have a creamy mixture. If the mixture is too runny, add more flour or cornstarch.You can use this white face paint as it is or you can mix in a few drops of fruit juice or food coloring to attain any color you need. Be aware, adding coloring  may result in a product which could stain your skin.Apply the face paint with a paintbrush or sponge, taking care to avoid getting it in the eyes.To remove this face paint, first use a tissue to remove as much face paint as possible. Then wash the face with soap and warm water.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

How do we train volunteers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

How do we train volunteers - Essay Example Much of the actual learning will occur on the job, as the individual works with more experienced members that will correspondingly show them how to carry out the tasks. Motivation is also a recognized concern, as the individuals are unpaid. In this way it will be the responsibility of administrators to continually remind the volunteers of how they appreciate the job they are doing. Volunteers generally involve themselves in such activities out of a desire to contribute and make a difference. It is then important to continually remind the volunteers that they are appreciated and are making a difference. Another important motivating factor will be to give the volunteers regular breaks and supply them with general amenities. The recognition is that if volunteers are required to work without breaks they will become discontent with the activities and their productivity will decline. Volunteers then will be regularly given things such as water and Gatorade. Additionally they will be given breaks where they can socialize with other volunteers and enjoy their experience together. Ultimately, these training and motivation steps will contribute to an active and productive volunteer

Thursday, October 31, 2019

ABC CPA Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

ABC CPA - Essay Example The limitations of internal control system include the aspect that due to the cost effective nature of the control system certain non-effective but useful controls are emitted. The other limitations include the aspect that designing as well as establishing efficient internal controls can be quite a difficult task due to lack of knowledge of staff to operate such systems. Internal control system might not always reflect altered operating conditions (Gupta 100-200). Internal control system has certain procedures which are illustrated by the help of two examples. Firstly, the internal control system should be served with proper Information Technologies (IT). IT helps the auditors to control the account related entries correctly and reduces the risk of wrong or emitted entry. This is because IT assists to store the data correctly and the stored data can be simultaneously cross-checked, consequently allowing to rectify the faults and can recognize the missing entry. This internal control process can be implemented by ABC Company to its auditing department by providing IT related requirements such as computers and through proper mode of communication. Computers will help to store the transactions related to accounts and communication process will assist the auditors to collect all information and documents related to accounts within its premises (Sai, â€Å"Internal Control and Auditing In IT Environment†). The other example of internal control procedures is that handed over duties and liabilities should be familiar and communicated to employee properly by the company’s higher level officials. This procedure helps the management and the subordinates to plan and to work out the strategies sufficiently by which the objective of the specified task can be achieved efficiently. This procedure of internal control can be implemented by ABC Company through

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Polish Music Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Polish Music - Research Proposal Example The hymn was being used as a chant as far back as the 13th century, and also served as a national anthem. It was sung by Polish troops, especially during defensive wars with the knights of the Cross. The â€Å"Gaude Mater Polonia† (Rejoice, Mother Poland), a hymn in praise of St. Stanislaus, is to this day, sung at the beginning of every academic year in most of the Polish universities. With the unification of Poland and Lithuania in 1569, the music of Poland integrated the influences of the Germans, Jews, Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Tartars and Scandinavians. The 16th and 17th centuries were periods of economic prosperity coupled with peaceful conditions. This era was conducive to the development of all forms of art and is also referred to as the Golden Age of Polish music. The royal court granted patronage to musicians from all the countries of Europe, while many were employed in the chapels of the aristocracy. This period saw great growth in the musical tradition of Poland w hen many forms of vocal polyphony (choral music) were created. Music was also an integral part of court life, with its dances and other forms of entertainment, all accompanied by music.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Bibliography On Person Centred Planning Social Work Essay

Bibliography On Person Centred Planning Social Work Essay This annotated bibliography contains valuable information about Person Centered/Directed planning. Person centered planning is a unique and beneficial approach to assist a person in achieving ones dreams and goals. Person centered planning has been found to be beneficial for those with a developmental disability as they often face additional barriers in their lives. Person centered planning is a very intricate project concentrating on the persons specific goals, necessities and desires. A person with developmental disabilities often faces difficult and unique challenges just to reach their goals and plan for their future. Person centered planning for those with a developmental disability include wills, estate planning, Henson trust, funding, passport initiative, social skills, community, risk management and above all respect. The information provided in this annotated bibliography is useful to everyone and especially those with developmental disabilities and their families. The forem ost idea of person centered/directed planning is empowering people with disability labels. It focuses their needs by placing them in charge of defining the path for their lives, not on the organisations that may or may not be obtainable to serve them. This leads to greater inclusion as respected participants of both community and society. The Role of the Office and Public Guardian and Trustee. (2010, December 9). Retrieved January 27, 2011, from Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General: This article comprises of information regarding the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee (OPGT) which delivers a unique and diverse range of services that safeguards the legal, personal and financial interests of certain private individuals and assets. Occasionally, the court will mandate the OPGT to make choices of a private nature for an incapable person in order to guard them from life-threatening physical risk. OPGT is sanctioned to appoint a clients relation to act in its place as guardian of possessions. The OPGT locates lawyers to act for people who are the focus of a proceeding under the Substitute Decisions Act, 1992 if ordered to do so by the court. The OPGT examines accounts when they are submitted by private guardians of property and estate executors to the court for consent. The OPGT then notifies the guardian, estate trustee and the court of any matters or concerns that may need to be addressed. Acting as Litigation Guardian or Legal Representative, the OPGT may be selected by the court to make decisions on behalf of individuals who are involved in lawsuits but who lack adequate capacity to suitably instruct a lawyer or to make pronouncements about weighty issues such as a potential settlement. The OPGT acts in this role, which is referred to, as Litigation Guardian. This is only in situations where there are no suitable alternatives. In this role, the OPGT does not make resolutions for the individual, but instead acts as an advocate, ensuring that the persons legal rights are protected and that his or her wishes are put before the court. This information is very important when providing person centered planning to an individual as there are many rights and services available and it is key to know which help is the best and how to get it. Beatty, H., Dickson, M. L., Stapleton, J. (n.d.). How Henson Trusts can support people who receive ODSP Benifits. What you can do to enhance the quality of life for a family member with a disability?: Consider Henson Trust, 4-6.   Ã‚  In this booklet, which can be found online at contains material regarding Henson Trusts. Henson Trusts are to ensure individuals with a disability receiving family benefits are not cut off from benefits if they are getting money from a trust set up to assist them. This is only so long as the trust gives whole control to the trustees about when to make payments from the trust. The Ontario Court says that the assets in a trust set up to support that person should not be considered as that persons assets. This is because someone else made verdicts about how to spend the money in the trust. In July of 2005, the Social Benefits Tribunal established that a person receiving ODSP could be supported by money in a Henson Trust. The Tribunal found that the person receiving ODSP could not force the trustees to give the individual the money from the trust. You can set up a Henson Trust while you are still alive, or you can put a Henson Trust in your will, to be set up after you die. The present law says ODSP cannot count the money in a Henson Trust when they do an asset test to decide if your relative is eligible for ODSP. If the trust offers it, the trustee can spend both the capital and the income in a Henson Trust. When you are planning for an individuals future and have their relatives involved, it is very important to ensure that the money you wish to leave to your loved one does not affect their ODSP entitlement. Ontario, I. F. (2006). Our VISION for a Direct Individualized Funding Approach in Ontario. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from Modeling Community Change : This document encompasses information about individualized funding. Individualized funding delivers the resources necessary for a person to meet their individual objectives by outlining what supports will be attained with funding entitled to them, and by directing those supports. Individualized funding is based on the values of residency, inclusion, self-sufficiency, community, and requirements for a whole life. Individualized funding also looks at the whole person. Additionally, the idea of individualized funding is founded on the standard that the person is the decision maker, and the persons voice is being honoured in the process. It is also significant that membership and contribution in community is a given, and the community is the first resource. A very significant principal is also that the dreams of the person and the assets of the person, family, and support network direct the process. Furthermore, the planning and facilitation is a detached utility in the system, and conne ction building and networks of people are key. Funding must be transferable which means that it can be moved within to a different agency, to another part of the province, and out of province, whatever is needed. Individualized funding means that the person chooses what the money is needed for with the guidance of person directed plan and the system is not choosing for them. Passport: A program to help you become a part of your community. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2011, from Ministry of Community and Social Services: This guide is for an individual with a developmental disability to acquire knowledge about their right of entry to their community using the Passport initiative. If an individual is still in school, Passport can give them a mentor. Once the individual leaves school, Passport will help persons make a plan, and assists them to participate in their community. Once an individual has left school, they may meet the requirements to receive money, which will pay for support, include the individuals in community activities. Passport will also support individuals in finding a job, undertaking volunteer work, learning skills to work, and volunteering in the community. With passport individuals have the opportunity to learn more by taking a course; learning how to use the library, and find out what can they do at their local community centre. An individual will need to complete the Passport application form if it is their first time applying for Passport funding, or if there has been an immense change in their necessities including support networks, or services. The individual will receive a letter that states if they have been accepted for Passport support. If they have been approved for Passport, the individual and/or their family will sign a contract with an agency. If they have not been approved for Passport the letter will tell they what to do next. It is possible that the individuals name will go on a waiting list and that they will get Passport funding later. If they have been approved for Passport funding and decide to move to another home or place in Ontario, their Passport funding will follow them to their new community. The passport initiative should be a part of all person centered planning as it the key to the community. A valued role in the community is something that everyone deserves. Swanton, S., Walsh, S., OMurchu, R., OFlynn, P. (2010). A tool to determine support needs for community life. Learning Disability Practice, 13(8), 24-26. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. This journal article covers material about the Supports Intensity Scale. The information explains its background as well as a project designed to evaluate its use in planning support for people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. The Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) was designed in detail for people with an intellectual disability. The SIS measures the level of support necessary for an individual with an intellectual disability to fully partake in community living. Scores are used to decide the supports need ratings; an overall supports needs index and a graph, which depicts a profile of the individual. The graph contains information about supports needs like sexual behaviour and aggression. Additionally the index will also contain tantrums, emotional outbursts, wandering, substance misuse, etc. Maintenance of mental health treatments is included as well. Each indicator is scored as 0 = not any support needed, 1 = a number of support needed, 2 = extensive support needed. When undertaking Person-centred support planning, the scale provides assistance to postulate the various supports needed for everyday life. The SIS can also point out what may be inhibiting specific life goals from being accomplished. These indicators would include such things as the requirement for support with skills expansion, or any unmet medical or mental health needs. In some occurrences, a person may require support recurrently but for a short interval each time, or substantial support only once a week. SIS is used to evaluate the patterns and intensity of an individuals supports need, and the type and intensity of support essential for realization of the goal. To use the scale as a basis for planning meaningful supports requires much supplementary insight and resourcefulness to break the gap between recognizing an individuals supports needs and making a genuine difference to their life. The SIS has the potential, if used insightfully, to document the supports require d to make a good life a reality for the people we serve. When laying out an individuals plan the SIS is, an indispensable tool to achieve the goals set out by the plan. Goforth, J. L. (2007, February). Planning Your Future: A Guide to Creating and Leading Your Personal Support Team. Retrieved February 15, 2011, from San DiegoState University : Aguidetocreatingyoursupportteam.doc United States This resource guide is about the Circle of Support for individuals with developmental disabilities. People that should be included on this intricate team are those from the workplace, school, home, and leisure areas an individuals life. Support team participants may include members of family, friends, neighbours, teachers, co-workers, advocates, roommates, case managers and/or service coordinators. An individuals team can support them with problem solving, goal setting and planning for the future. Additionally, the Circle of Support will assist with learning new things, attainment information about an individuals community, offering support to be successful in the workplace, at school, and living in the community of choice. A picture of an individuals life would comprise of how the individual desires their life to be in the future. This includes, looking at where the person lives now, and where they want to live. Some planning ideas might include more money, training, or possibly get ting an assistant. This is only one aspect of a very thought out and detailed plan to be created by the individual with assistance of the circle of support. An individuals team members can also share their vision or dreams for the persons future. What are any concerns or worries that the person or their team have about the individuals future, or reaching the goals have been set. Using this information provided it becomes evident that the circle of support is a key aspect in an individuals person centered planning. Galloway, C. (1979). Conversion to a Policy of Community Presence and Participation. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from The Minnesota Governors Council on Developmental Disabilities: This article contains information on community presence. The strategy that allows persons with developmental disabilities to join humanity and rests on two central expectations having to do with the nature of the person and the nature of the persons place in society. These c assumptions,-neither more important than the other, produce certain captivating questions: like if persons share involvement in the same human and national association, how can those things valued by most are deprived to some? The dominance of the strategy of community presence and participation proposes that a change in basic thought, in our fundamental edifice of beliefs and values, takes place. A shift feasibly linked with alterations in our system of law and our acceptance of the nature of human performance is essential as well. Community presence is the key to person centered planning and assisting the individual to remove the stigma of having a developmental disability. Office of Disibility Employment Policy: Communicating with and About People with Disabilities. (2002, August). Retrieved February 13, 2010, from United States Department of Labour: When we think about person centered planning we undoubtedly must to think of respect. This web articles does just that. Individuals are sometimes concerned that they will say the incorrect thing, so they say nothing at all. This further segregates people with disabilities. When writing or speaking about people with disabilities, it is significant to put the person first. Further, words like normal person imply that the person with a disability is not normal. Whereas person without a disability is, descriptive but not negative. When acquainted with to a person with a disability, it is fitting to propose to shake hands. To show respect look directly at the individual when speaking to them. If you do not comprehend something the individual says, do not pretend that you do. Try to ask questions that necessitate only short responses or gestures. If you are having difficulty understanding the individual, contemplate writing as a substitute means of communicating. To show respect a person s hould also take time to understand the individual and make sure the individual understands them. All of these points are very important when assisting an individual with developmental disabilities with their life plan and ensuring that it fits them. Ylvisaker, M., Hibbard, M., Feeney, T. (2006). What is Social Competence. Retrieved January 27, 2011,from Learn Net: This article contains specific information regarding social competence, better known as social skills. We use the term social competence rather than the more commonly used term social skills because the term skills suggests that rehearsal of certain socially positive behaviours is all that a person requires being socially effective. In addition, the precise abilities or actions associated with social competence differ from one social setting to another and from one social group to another. Social competence includes, but is not reserved to effective social communication. Critical to social accomplishment is having knowledgeable, empathetic, and capable communication partners. A natural and reasonable value for effective social behaviour is maintenance of a satiating social collaboration. Social competence is essential to a person with a developmental disability reaching their goals. When you are partaking in person centered planning it is extremely important to ensure the individual you are assisting includes social skill development into their life plan. Rose, J. (2006). Individual Risk Management Planning (IRMP). Retrieved February 12, 2010, from Irwin Seigal Agency Inc.: This section of an article is about Individual Risk Management (IRMP). IRMP is a procedure that is exclusively built on an individuals capabilities and objectives. It is a balancing of risk and reward. Risk management should highlight safety measures and tactics that will address concerns and generate circumstances where risk is accomplished and equitable whenever possible. A risk management system is constructed upon a strong process for detecting unreasonable risk. A risk management structure must evaluate the ability of an individual to make knowledgeable choices and to learn from those choices with the obligation of supporting an individual to be safe. The goal of risk management planning is to classify possible risks and to implement practices that will eradicate or diminish loss effect. The role of the provider and the individuals team is to detect those potentially bad experiences, to implement an individualized risk management plan. Liability is a part of everyones life and i t should not be excluded from an individuals life plan. Blaney, J. B. (n.d.). Closing the Gap between Vision and Reality: Building Person-Centered Organizations. Retrieved January 19, 2010, from Reinventing Quality: This document contains pronounced information on leadership in person centered planning organizations. In the person-centered organization, authority and accountability must be distributed throughout the system of person-centered teams. The issue is not of position or title of the leader, but of what authority, information, resources and accountability does this team or team member require in order to support life changes for the individual that make a difference. One of the genuine roles as described above is that of the Direct Support Professional (DSP). The DSP becomes an empowered leader within a person-centered team. The DSP will work closely with the individual to ensure the planning process is going, as they want. If team members have trouble in making decisions or taking responsibility, the DSP pursues verification of the concern as well as accountability of the team. Leadership is essential for Developmental Service Workers when implementing person centered planning in the o rganizations they work with. Smull, M. W. (1946). Positive Rituals and Quality of Life. In J. OBrien, C. L. OBrien, a little book about Person Centered Planning (pp. 51-54). Toronto: Inclusion Press. This section of the book about person centered planning contains information about rituals and a persons quality of life when living with a developmental disability. Conceivably, it is the absence of mindful thoughtfulness that has led us to negligence in the role of ritual in the quality of life of people with disabilities. It is necessary for those of us who support people with disabilities to wilfully contemplate the role of ritual and to insure the presence of positive rituals. Rituals begin every day with our morning routines. Support workers also need to remember that some rituals are rituals of comfort. For Individuals with a disability support worker often forget that rituals are normal. Not only are rituals apart of normalization but they directly affect a persons quality of life. A person with a developmental disability has the right to have rituals and a persons desired rituals must be considered in person centered planning. In conclusion, this annotated bibliography contains key points, ideas, and processes for person centered/directed planning. I have learned so much while writing this bibliography, and now have an awareness of the different types, area, specialties, and sources to assist a developmental service worker to ensure they are educated and able to provide the best assistance with person centered planning. With this information, I have learned just how very important person directed planning is, as well as how intricate and important the entire process is. Person centered/directed planning is an essential tool for people with a developmental disability.