Thursday, October 31, 2019

ABC CPA Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

ABC CPA - Essay Example The limitations of internal control system include the aspect that due to the cost effective nature of the control system certain non-effective but useful controls are emitted. The other limitations include the aspect that designing as well as establishing efficient internal controls can be quite a difficult task due to lack of knowledge of staff to operate such systems. Internal control system might not always reflect altered operating conditions (Gupta 100-200). Internal control system has certain procedures which are illustrated by the help of two examples. Firstly, the internal control system should be served with proper Information Technologies (IT). IT helps the auditors to control the account related entries correctly and reduces the risk of wrong or emitted entry. This is because IT assists to store the data correctly and the stored data can be simultaneously cross-checked, consequently allowing to rectify the faults and can recognize the missing entry. This internal control process can be implemented by ABC Company to its auditing department by providing IT related requirements such as computers and through proper mode of communication. Computers will help to store the transactions related to accounts and communication process will assist the auditors to collect all information and documents related to accounts within its premises (Sai, â€Å"Internal Control and Auditing In IT Environment†). The other example of internal control procedures is that handed over duties and liabilities should be familiar and communicated to employee properly by the company’s higher level officials. This procedure helps the management and the subordinates to plan and to work out the strategies sufficiently by which the objective of the specified task can be achieved efficiently. This procedure of internal control can be implemented by ABC Company through

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Polish Music Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Polish Music - Research Proposal Example The hymn was being used as a chant as far back as the 13th century, and also served as a national anthem. It was sung by Polish troops, especially during defensive wars with the knights of the Cross. The â€Å"Gaude Mater Polonia† (Rejoice, Mother Poland), a hymn in praise of St. Stanislaus, is to this day, sung at the beginning of every academic year in most of the Polish universities. With the unification of Poland and Lithuania in 1569, the music of Poland integrated the influences of the Germans, Jews, Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Tartars and Scandinavians. The 16th and 17th centuries were periods of economic prosperity coupled with peaceful conditions. This era was conducive to the development of all forms of art and is also referred to as the Golden Age of Polish music. The royal court granted patronage to musicians from all the countries of Europe, while many were employed in the chapels of the aristocracy. This period saw great growth in the musical tradition of Poland w hen many forms of vocal polyphony (choral music) were created. Music was also an integral part of court life, with its dances and other forms of entertainment, all accompanied by music.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Bibliography On Person Centred Planning Social Work Essay

Bibliography On Person Centred Planning Social Work Essay This annotated bibliography contains valuable information about Person Centered/Directed planning. Person centered planning is a unique and beneficial approach to assist a person in achieving ones dreams and goals. Person centered planning has been found to be beneficial for those with a developmental disability as they often face additional barriers in their lives. Person centered planning is a very intricate project concentrating on the persons specific goals, necessities and desires. A person with developmental disabilities often faces difficult and unique challenges just to reach their goals and plan for their future. Person centered planning for those with a developmental disability include wills, estate planning, Henson trust, funding, passport initiative, social skills, community, risk management and above all respect. The information provided in this annotated bibliography is useful to everyone and especially those with developmental disabilities and their families. The forem ost idea of person centered/directed planning is empowering people with disability labels. It focuses their needs by placing them in charge of defining the path for their lives, not on the organisations that may or may not be obtainable to serve them. This leads to greater inclusion as respected participants of both community and society. The Role of the Office and Public Guardian and Trustee. (2010, December 9). Retrieved January 27, 2011, from Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General: This article comprises of information regarding the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee (OPGT) which delivers a unique and diverse range of services that safeguards the legal, personal and financial interests of certain private individuals and assets. Occasionally, the court will mandate the OPGT to make choices of a private nature for an incapable person in order to guard them from life-threatening physical risk. OPGT is sanctioned to appoint a clients relation to act in its place as guardian of possessions. The OPGT locates lawyers to act for people who are the focus of a proceeding under the Substitute Decisions Act, 1992 if ordered to do so by the court. The OPGT examines accounts when they are submitted by private guardians of property and estate executors to the court for consent. The OPGT then notifies the guardian, estate trustee and the court of any matters or concerns that may need to be addressed. Acting as Litigation Guardian or Legal Representative, the OPGT may be selected by the court to make decisions on behalf of individuals who are involved in lawsuits but who lack adequate capacity to suitably instruct a lawyer or to make pronouncements about weighty issues such as a potential settlement. The OPGT acts in this role, which is referred to, as Litigation Guardian. This is only in situations where there are no suitable alternatives. In this role, the OPGT does not make resolutions for the individual, but instead acts as an advocate, ensuring that the persons legal rights are protected and that his or her wishes are put before the court. This information is very important when providing person centered planning to an individual as there are many rights and services available and it is key to know which help is the best and how to get it. Beatty, H., Dickson, M. L., Stapleton, J. (n.d.). How Henson Trusts can support people who receive ODSP Benifits. What you can do to enhance the quality of life for a family member with a disability?: Consider Henson Trust, 4-6.   Ã‚  In this booklet, which can be found online at contains material regarding Henson Trusts. Henson Trusts are to ensure individuals with a disability receiving family benefits are not cut off from benefits if they are getting money from a trust set up to assist them. This is only so long as the trust gives whole control to the trustees about when to make payments from the trust. The Ontario Court says that the assets in a trust set up to support that person should not be considered as that persons assets. This is because someone else made verdicts about how to spend the money in the trust. In July of 2005, the Social Benefits Tribunal established that a person receiving ODSP could be supported by money in a Henson Trust. The Tribunal found that the person receiving ODSP could not force the trustees to give the individual the money from the trust. You can set up a Henson Trust while you are still alive, or you can put a Henson Trust in your will, to be set up after you die. The present law says ODSP cannot count the money in a Henson Trust when they do an asset test to decide if your relative is eligible for ODSP. If the trust offers it, the trustee can spend both the capital and the income in a Henson Trust. When you are planning for an individuals future and have their relatives involved, it is very important to ensure that the money you wish to leave to your loved one does not affect their ODSP entitlement. Ontario, I. F. (2006). Our VISION for a Direct Individualized Funding Approach in Ontario. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from Modeling Community Change : This document encompasses information about individualized funding. Individualized funding delivers the resources necessary for a person to meet their individual objectives by outlining what supports will be attained with funding entitled to them, and by directing those supports. Individualized funding is based on the values of residency, inclusion, self-sufficiency, community, and requirements for a whole life. Individualized funding also looks at the whole person. Additionally, the idea of individualized funding is founded on the standard that the person is the decision maker, and the persons voice is being honoured in the process. It is also significant that membership and contribution in community is a given, and the community is the first resource. A very significant principal is also that the dreams of the person and the assets of the person, family, and support network direct the process. Furthermore, the planning and facilitation is a detached utility in the system, and conne ction building and networks of people are key. Funding must be transferable which means that it can be moved within to a different agency, to another part of the province, and out of province, whatever is needed. Individualized funding means that the person chooses what the money is needed for with the guidance of person directed plan and the system is not choosing for them. Passport: A program to help you become a part of your community. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2011, from Ministry of Community and Social Services: This guide is for an individual with a developmental disability to acquire knowledge about their right of entry to their community using the Passport initiative. If an individual is still in school, Passport can give them a mentor. Once the individual leaves school, Passport will help persons make a plan, and assists them to participate in their community. Once an individual has left school, they may meet the requirements to receive money, which will pay for support, include the individuals in community activities. Passport will also support individuals in finding a job, undertaking volunteer work, learning skills to work, and volunteering in the community. With passport individuals have the opportunity to learn more by taking a course; learning how to use the library, and find out what can they do at their local community centre. An individual will need to complete the Passport application form if it is their first time applying for Passport funding, or if there has been an immense change in their necessities including support networks, or services. The individual will receive a letter that states if they have been accepted for Passport support. If they have been approved for Passport, the individual and/or their family will sign a contract with an agency. If they have not been approved for Passport the letter will tell they what to do next. It is possible that the individuals name will go on a waiting list and that they will get Passport funding later. If they have been approved for Passport funding and decide to move to another home or place in Ontario, their Passport funding will follow them to their new community. The passport initiative should be a part of all person centered planning as it the key to the community. A valued role in the community is something that everyone deserves. Swanton, S., Walsh, S., OMurchu, R., OFlynn, P. (2010). A tool to determine support needs for community life. Learning Disability Practice, 13(8), 24-26. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. This journal article covers material about the Supports Intensity Scale. The information explains its background as well as a project designed to evaluate its use in planning support for people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour. The Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) was designed in detail for people with an intellectual disability. The SIS measures the level of support necessary for an individual with an intellectual disability to fully partake in community living. Scores are used to decide the supports need ratings; an overall supports needs index and a graph, which depicts a profile of the individual. The graph contains information about supports needs like sexual behaviour and aggression. Additionally the index will also contain tantrums, emotional outbursts, wandering, substance misuse, etc. Maintenance of mental health treatments is included as well. Each indicator is scored as 0 = not any support needed, 1 = a number of support needed, 2 = extensive support needed. When undertaking Person-centred support planning, the scale provides assistance to postulate the various supports needed for everyday life. The SIS can also point out what may be inhibiting specific life goals from being accomplished. These indicators would include such things as the requirement for support with skills expansion, or any unmet medical or mental health needs. In some occurrences, a person may require support recurrently but for a short interval each time, or substantial support only once a week. SIS is used to evaluate the patterns and intensity of an individuals supports need, and the type and intensity of support essential for realization of the goal. To use the scale as a basis for planning meaningful supports requires much supplementary insight and resourcefulness to break the gap between recognizing an individuals supports needs and making a genuine difference to their life. The SIS has the potential, if used insightfully, to document the supports require d to make a good life a reality for the people we serve. When laying out an individuals plan the SIS is, an indispensable tool to achieve the goals set out by the plan. Goforth, J. L. (2007, February). Planning Your Future: A Guide to Creating and Leading Your Personal Support Team. Retrieved February 15, 2011, from San DiegoState University : Aguidetocreatingyoursupportteam.doc United States This resource guide is about the Circle of Support for individuals with developmental disabilities. People that should be included on this intricate team are those from the workplace, school, home, and leisure areas an individuals life. Support team participants may include members of family, friends, neighbours, teachers, co-workers, advocates, roommates, case managers and/or service coordinators. An individuals team can support them with problem solving, goal setting and planning for the future. Additionally, the Circle of Support will assist with learning new things, attainment information about an individuals community, offering support to be successful in the workplace, at school, and living in the community of choice. A picture of an individuals life would comprise of how the individual desires their life to be in the future. This includes, looking at where the person lives now, and where they want to live. Some planning ideas might include more money, training, or possibly get ting an assistant. This is only one aspect of a very thought out and detailed plan to be created by the individual with assistance of the circle of support. An individuals team members can also share their vision or dreams for the persons future. What are any concerns or worries that the person or their team have about the individuals future, or reaching the goals have been set. Using this information provided it becomes evident that the circle of support is a key aspect in an individuals person centered planning. Galloway, C. (1979). Conversion to a Policy of Community Presence and Participation. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from The Minnesota Governors Council on Developmental Disabilities: This article contains information on community presence. The strategy that allows persons with developmental disabilities to join humanity and rests on two central expectations having to do with the nature of the person and the nature of the persons place in society. These c assumptions,-neither more important than the other, produce certain captivating questions: like if persons share involvement in the same human and national association, how can those things valued by most are deprived to some? The dominance of the strategy of community presence and participation proposes that a change in basic thought, in our fundamental edifice of beliefs and values, takes place. A shift feasibly linked with alterations in our system of law and our acceptance of the nature of human performance is essential as well. Community presence is the key to person centered planning and assisting the individual to remove the stigma of having a developmental disability. Office of Disibility Employment Policy: Communicating with and About People with Disabilities. (2002, August). Retrieved February 13, 2010, from United States Department of Labour: When we think about person centered planning we undoubtedly must to think of respect. This web articles does just that. Individuals are sometimes concerned that they will say the incorrect thing, so they say nothing at all. This further segregates people with disabilities. When writing or speaking about people with disabilities, it is significant to put the person first. Further, words like normal person imply that the person with a disability is not normal. Whereas person without a disability is, descriptive but not negative. When acquainted with to a person with a disability, it is fitting to propose to shake hands. To show respect look directly at the individual when speaking to them. If you do not comprehend something the individual says, do not pretend that you do. Try to ask questions that necessitate only short responses or gestures. If you are having difficulty understanding the individual, contemplate writing as a substitute means of communicating. To show respect a person s hould also take time to understand the individual and make sure the individual understands them. All of these points are very important when assisting an individual with developmental disabilities with their life plan and ensuring that it fits them. Ylvisaker, M., Hibbard, M., Feeney, T. (2006). What is Social Competence. Retrieved January 27, 2011,from Learn Net: This article contains specific information regarding social competence, better known as social skills. We use the term social competence rather than the more commonly used term social skills because the term skills suggests that rehearsal of certain socially positive behaviours is all that a person requires being socially effective. In addition, the precise abilities or actions associated with social competence differ from one social setting to another and from one social group to another. Social competence includes, but is not reserved to effective social communication. Critical to social accomplishment is having knowledgeable, empathetic, and capable communication partners. A natural and reasonable value for effective social behaviour is maintenance of a satiating social collaboration. Social competence is essential to a person with a developmental disability reaching their goals. When you are partaking in person centered planning it is extremely important to ensure the individual you are assisting includes social skill development into their life plan. Rose, J. (2006). Individual Risk Management Planning (IRMP). Retrieved February 12, 2010, from Irwin Seigal Agency Inc.: This section of an article is about Individual Risk Management (IRMP). IRMP is a procedure that is exclusively built on an individuals capabilities and objectives. It is a balancing of risk and reward. Risk management should highlight safety measures and tactics that will address concerns and generate circumstances where risk is accomplished and equitable whenever possible. A risk management system is constructed upon a strong process for detecting unreasonable risk. A risk management structure must evaluate the ability of an individual to make knowledgeable choices and to learn from those choices with the obligation of supporting an individual to be safe. The goal of risk management planning is to classify possible risks and to implement practices that will eradicate or diminish loss effect. The role of the provider and the individuals team is to detect those potentially bad experiences, to implement an individualized risk management plan. Liability is a part of everyones life and i t should not be excluded from an individuals life plan. Blaney, J. B. (n.d.). Closing the Gap between Vision and Reality: Building Person-Centered Organizations. Retrieved January 19, 2010, from Reinventing Quality: This document contains pronounced information on leadership in person centered planning organizations. In the person-centered organization, authority and accountability must be distributed throughout the system of person-centered teams. The issue is not of position or title of the leader, but of what authority, information, resources and accountability does this team or team member require in order to support life changes for the individual that make a difference. One of the genuine roles as described above is that of the Direct Support Professional (DSP). The DSP becomes an empowered leader within a person-centered team. The DSP will work closely with the individual to ensure the planning process is going, as they want. If team members have trouble in making decisions or taking responsibility, the DSP pursues verification of the concern as well as accountability of the team. Leadership is essential for Developmental Service Workers when implementing person centered planning in the o rganizations they work with. Smull, M. W. (1946). Positive Rituals and Quality of Life. In J. OBrien, C. L. OBrien, a little book about Person Centered Planning (pp. 51-54). Toronto: Inclusion Press. This section of the book about person centered planning contains information about rituals and a persons quality of life when living with a developmental disability. Conceivably, it is the absence of mindful thoughtfulness that has led us to negligence in the role of ritual in the quality of life of people with disabilities. It is necessary for those of us who support people with disabilities to wilfully contemplate the role of ritual and to insure the presence of positive rituals. Rituals begin every day with our morning routines. Support workers also need to remember that some rituals are rituals of comfort. For Individuals with a disability support worker often forget that rituals are normal. Not only are rituals apart of normalization but they directly affect a persons quality of life. A person with a developmental disability has the right to have rituals and a persons desired rituals must be considered in person centered planning. In conclusion, this annotated bibliography contains key points, ideas, and processes for person centered/directed planning. I have learned so much while writing this bibliography, and now have an awareness of the different types, area, specialties, and sources to assist a developmental service worker to ensure they are educated and able to provide the best assistance with person centered planning. With this information, I have learned just how very important person directed planning is, as well as how intricate and important the entire process is. Person centered/directed planning is an essential tool for people with a developmental disability.

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Combining of Cable TV and the Internet Essay -- Television Technol

The Combining of Cable TV and the Internet The Telecommunications Act of 1996 opened the way for cable TV (CATV) companies to become full-fledged telecommunications companies, offering two-way voice and data communications services, in addition to television programming. After passage of the Act, the cable companies were eager to expand into the new fields of business that had been opened to them, especially the rapidly growing Internet Service Provider (ISP) business. The biggest hurdle facing the cable companies is that cable television systems were designed for one-way traffic, and must be upgraded into modern two-way networks in order to support advanced communications services. This is an expensive and technically complex undertaking. In addition, interfaces allowing subscriber’s PCs to access the Internet via the CATV cable had to be developed. These interface devices are called cable modems. Cable modems are designed to take advantage of the broadband capability provided by the cable TV infrastructure, ena bling peak connection speeds many times faster than conventional dial-up connections. Cable Modems, Cable TV Meets the Internet Cable modems have only recently been introduced for private commercial use. Cable modems and the cable data networks they are a integral part of hold the promise of providing a great deal of communications bandwidth for the private user. Greater bandwidth equals greater speed in the realm of the Internet. The Internet has only been around for private use for a relatively short period of time, nonetheless, it has grown quite rapidly. It appears that the Internet will continue to grow at a rapid pace. People will begin to use the Internet for more and more applications. Network... ... (1996, September). Break the bandwidth barrier. Byte. [No pagination]. Retrived September 16, 1999 from the World Wide Web:// Medin, M., Rolls, J. (1999, October). The internet via cable. Scientific American, 100-101 Ostergard, R.V. (1998). ABC of cable modems. [No pagination]. Retrieved September 7, 1999 from the World Wide Web: // Salent, M.D. (1999) Cable modem technical tutorial. Cable Modem Information Network. [No pagination]. Retrieved September 20, 1999 from the World Wide Web:// Van Matre, D.L. (1999) Overview of cable modem technology and services. Cable Data Communications. [No pagination]. Retrieved September 20, 1999 from the World Wide Web://

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Morality in Islam Essay

Morals are the standards set by society for an ethical human behavior. It can also be called the ability to distinguish between right and wrong. Morality is the adherence to the moral values present in the society, especially the following of good moral conduct. Islam is a comprehensive way of life, and morality is one of the cornerstones Islam. Morality is one of the fundamental sources of a nation’s strength, just as immorality is one of the main causes of a nation’s decline. Islam has established some universal fundamental rights for humanity as a whole, which are to be observed in all circumstances. To uphold these rights, Islam has provided not only legal safeguards, but also a very effective moral system. Thus, whatever leads to the welfare of the individual or the society and does not oppose any maxims of the religion is morally good in Islam, and whatever is harmful is morally bad. Given its importance in a healthy society, Islam supports morality and matters that lead to it, and stands in the way of corruption and matters that lead to it. The guiding principle for the behavior of a Muslim is â€Å"Virtuous Deeds†. This term covers all deeds, not only acts of worship. The Guardian and Judge of all deeds is God Himself. Morals in the general society might have evolved considerably over the centuries but their main purpose remains the same; i. e. to practice good behavior and abstain from ill doings and injustice. The pursuit of justice, tolerance and fairness has been appreciated and upheld by man for centuries, and detest for evil doings and cruelty has been ever present. Morality has a very important role in the religion of Islam and in the life of a Muslim. Islam tells us that the conscience of a person has it in him to do good deeds and refrain from evil. The Holy Quran calls good, maruf-a well known things and evil, munkar-an unknown thing. It means that it is desirable to do good deeds and undesirable to indulge in evil practices. The Quran says: â€Å"By the Soul! And the proportion and order given to it, and its enlightenment as to its wrong and its right- truly he succeeds that purifies it, and he fails that corrupts it. † (91:7-10) The moral values in Islam deal with the relationship of a man with his God, man with his fellow beings and the man’s relationship with his soul. The moral codes given to Muslims to follow are Divine guidance from Allah himself. These codes and values stand the test of time and are universal in their nature. One can realize how much importance and is given to morals in Islam. The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said that the good manners and morals were the real test of a man’s excellence. He (pbuh) said: â€Å"The best of you are those who have the most excellent morals. † The moral values of Islam are instrumental towards creating a healthy and a sustainable society. The moral values in Islam emphasize on piety, patience, forgiveness, justice, kindness brotherhood, equality, truthfulness, lawful earning and acquisition of knowledge. The Holy Quran signifying the value of justice says; â€Å"†¦for Allah loves those who are fair and just. † (49:9) The morals in Islam also incorporate the conduct of an individual towards his parents, spouse, relatives and neighbors. Islam instructs the follower to give his fellow beings their due rights and complete his obligations towards them. The guidance for human beings to live their life in Islam comes through Divine commands. The promise of paradise, and the warning from the inexplicably hot fire of the hell, motivates the believer to follow the right path. The Divine guidance sets the standard for the most excellent possible moral behavior. Importance of morality in Islam is beautifully captured in the saying of the Holy Prophet (pbuh): â€Å"The thing which will make the majority of the people enter Paradise is fear of Allah and good manners. † he most fundamental characteristics of a Muslim are piety and humility. A Muslim must be humble with God and with other people: â€Å"And turn not your face away from people (with pride), nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, God likes not each arrogant boaster. And be moderate (or show no insolence) in your walking, and lower your voice. Verily, the harshest of all voices is the voice (braying) of the ass. † (Quran 31:18-19) Muslims must be in controls of their passions and desires. A Muslim should not be vain or attached to the ephemeral pleasures of this world. While most people allow the material world to fill their hearts, Muslims should keep God in their hearts and the material world in their hand. Instead of being attached to the car and the job and the diploma and the bank account, all these things become tools to make us better people. â€Å"The Day whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail, but only he (will prosper) that brings to God a sound heart. † (Quran: 26:88-89) Principles of Morality in Islam. God sums up righteousness in verse 177 of Surat Al Baqarah: â€Å"It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards East or West; but it is righteousness (the quality of ) the one who believes in God and the Last Day and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; who spends of his wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, to the needy, to the wayfarer, to those who ask and for the freeing of slaves; and who is steadfast in prayers, and gives Zakah (Alms); and those who fulfill their covenants which they made; and who are patient and perseverant in poverty and ailment and throughout all periods of fighting. Such are the people of truth, the pious. † This verse teaches us that righteousness and piety is based before all else on a true and sincere faith. The key to virtue and good conduct is a strong relation with God, who sees all, at all times and everywhere. He knows the secrets of the hearts and the intentions behind all actions. Therefore, a Muslim must be moral in all circumstances; God is aware of each one when no one else is. If we deceive everyone, we cannot deceive Him. We can flee from anyone, but not from Him. The love and continuous awareness of God and the Day of Judgment enables man to be moral in conduct and sincere in intentions, with devotion and dedication: â€Å"Indeed, the most honorable among you in the sight of God is the most pious. † (Quran 49:13) Then come deeds of charity to others, especially giving things we love. This, like acts of worship, prayers and Zakah (mandatory alms), is an integral part of worship. A righteous person must be reliable and trustworthy. Finally, their faith must be firm and should not wane when faced with adversity. Morality must be strong to vanquish corruption: â€Å"And God loves those who are firm and steadfast. † Patience is often hardest and most beautiful when it’s against one’s own desires or anger: â€Å"And march forth toward forgiveness from your Lord, and for Paradise as wide as are the heavens and the earth, prepared for the pious. Those who spend (in the way of God) in prosperity and in adversity, who repress anger, and who pardon people; verily, God loves the doers of the good deeds. † (Quran 3:133) These three acts are among the hardest things for most people, but they are also the key to forgiveness and to paradise. Are they not the best, those who are able to exercise charity when they are in need themselves, control when they are angry and forgiveness when they are wronged? This is the standard by which actions are judged as good or bad. By making pleasing God the objective of every Muslim, Islam has set the highest possible standard of morality. Morality in Islam addresses every aspect of a Muslim’s life, from greetings to international relations. It is universal in its scope and in its applicability. Morality reigns in selfish desires, vanity and bad habits. Muslims must not only be virtuous, but they must also enjoin virtue. They must not only refrain from evil and vice, but they must also forbid them. In other words, they must not only be morally healthy, but they must also contribute to the moral health of society as a whole. â€Å"You are the best of the nations raised up for (the benefit of) men; you enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong and believe in God; and if the followers of the Book had believed it would have been better for them; of them (some) are believers and most of them are transgressors. † (Quran: 3:110) The Prophet, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, summarized the conduct of a Muslim when he said:â€Å"My Sustainer has given me nine commands: to remain conscious of God, whether in private or in public; to speak justly, whether angry or pleased; to show moderation both when poor and when rich, to reunite friendship with those who have broken off with me; to give to him who refuses me; that my silence should be occupied with thought; that my looking should be an admonition; and that I should command what is right. † The love and continuous awareness of God and the Day of Judgment enables man to be moral in conduct and sincere in intentions, with devotion and dedication. The Glorious Qur’an also says:Say: the things that my Lord hath indeed forbidden are: shameful deeds, whether open or secret; sins and trespasses against truth or reason; assigning of partners to Allah, for which He hath given no authority; and saying things about Allah of which ye have no knowledge. [Al-Qur’an 7:33]It is interesting that the Qur’an refers to â€Å"sins and trespasses against truth or reason†. It is an indication of God’s blessing to every human being, of an innate moral sense. Such a moral sense, when uncorrupted by family or society, is what leads people to commendable acts of virtue. Islam aims to enhance and amplify the moral sense in every human being and adorn the individual’s character with the noblest of virtues. The Islamic moral principles therefore, appeal naturally to the human intellect, while elevating the pursuit of morality to the level of worship. This is because Islam holds every action that is done with the goal of attaining of God’s pleasure to be worship. | Morality and the individual The guiding principle for the behavior of a Muslim is what the Qur’an refers to as Al `Amal Assalih or virtuous deeds. This term covers all deeds, not just the outward acts of worship. Some of the most primary character traits expected of a Muslim are piety, humility and a profound sense of accountability to God. A Muslim is expected to be humble before God and with other people. Islam also enjoins upon every Muslim to exercise control of their passions and desires. Islam warns against vanity and excessive attachment to the ephemeral pleasures of this world. While it is easy to allow the material world to fill our hearts, Islam calls upon human beings to keep God in their hearts and to use the material world in moderation and in accordance with God’s guidance. The Glorious Qur’an says: â€Å"The Day whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail, but only he (will prosper) that brings to Allah a sound heart† [Al-Quran: 26:88-89] Charity is one of the most commendable acts in Islam. In fact, Zakah, the annual charity that is obligatory on every Muslim who has accrued wealth above a certain level, is one of the pillars of Islam. Gratitude in prosperity, patience in adversity, and the courage to uphold the truth, even when inconvenient to oneself, are just some of the qualities that every Muslim is encouraged to cultivate. Morality and Society For an individual as well as a society, morality is one of the fundamental sources of strength, just as immorality is one of the main causes of decline. While respecting the rights of the individual within a broad Islamic framework, Islam is also concerned with the moral health of the society. Thus, everything that leads to the welfare of the individual and the society is morally good in Islam, and whatever is harmful is morally bad. Given its importance to a healthy and just society, Islam supports morality and matters that lead to the enhancement of morality, and stands in the way of corruption and matters that lead to the spreading of corruption. The injunctions and prohibitions in Islam are to be seen in this light Conclusion Morality in Islam addresses every aspect of a Muslim’s life, from greetings to international relations. It is universal in its scope and in its applicability. A Muslim is expected to not only be virtuous, but to also enjoin virtue. He/She must not only refrain from evil and vice, but must also actively engage in asking people to eschew them. In other words, they must not only be morally healthy, but must also contribute to the moral health of society as a whole. The Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) summarized the conduct of a Muslim when he said: â€Å"My Sustainer has given me nine commands: to remain conscious of God, whether in private or in public; to speak justly, whether angry or pleased; to show moderation both when poor and when rich, to reunite friendship with those who have broken off with me; to give to him who refuses me; that my silence should be occupied with thought; that my looking should be an admonition; and that I should command what is right. †

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Google Strategic Plan Essay

Abstract The paper aims to examine the strategic plan by Google and the company’s dominance on the internet. The report will leverage my earlier reporting information by synthesizing the information into an informed strategic plan. Scholarly articles and scientific literatures will also be used as a backdrop for the report. The findings from the report indicate that Google is sweeping the world and is currently a threat to Microsoft. The ability to provide relevant searches and link seekers to opportunities gives the company a competitive advantage on the internet. However, there are many companies competing for dominance on the same niche. Nevertheless, Google’s accomplishment is far-flung and long-standing than any other company imaginable. The report will conclude by providing recommendation with regard to Google’s organizational structure and its management systems. Additionally, in the same end, the study will provide informed recommendations for establishing a corpo rate diversification strategy for the company. Google Vision, Mission and Goals Google’s primary mission is to organize information and make it accessible and useful (Google, 2006). The company prides itself in the collection, synthesis, analysis and presentation of a range of information packages. Since 1998 when the company was invented from a minor search engine BackRub in the Silicon Valley, it has grown to serve the needs of the people around the world. Google envisions on becoming the greatest, most reliable source of web information. Through a powerful teamwork and pristine skills in science and technology, Google envisions in pursuing the edge of its expertise to come up with a competitive platform. The platform will be used in the provision of reliable information. Google’s aims to provide the best user experience through emerging technologies and geographies. Finally, the company’s objective is to attain a unique placement in search results focusing exclusively in solving problems and iteration of difficulties (Google, 2006). However, does Google live to the above promises? Is the  company’s overall strategy and operation in line with the advocated values to achieve its mission? Google employs a great team of professionals who are trained and equipped on particular areas on interest (Bamford & West, 2010). The culture at the company favors ability over experience just as stated on the company’s official website. Before a post is published into Google pages, it has to go through a selected span where it is analyzed by experts and potential flaws (plagiarism, authenticity and confidentiality of the information) identified. This requirement means that Google is committed to providing reliable information on the internet even as people grapple to present ideas online. Google’s privacy terms stipulate that keeping the web safe is a shared responsibility. As a result, it welcomes bloggers and site owners to bear responsibility in the provision of information. The Adsense program features a two-week verification process where it scrutinizes blogging information and ensures that provided articles and essays are at par with the recommended levels. What is more, the Google Safety Centre penalizes plagiarized information by giving it low preference in web search placement. Indeed, the company’s legal policy terminates any site that does not adhere to the stipulated provisions and does not use the pattern recognized by Google’s team. From the above initiatives, Google has succeeded in aligning its overall strategy to its mission and goals. Indeed, the company is every day working to improve the patent quality of its software by emphasizing on the need to transform the internet continuously by solving information needs by people (Fox, 2010). Google’s Approach to Creating a Sustainable Competitive Advantage One of the ten things Google knows as true (company’s philosophy is that focusing on the user comes before any other thing. Therefore, the company ensures that every change done will ultimately serve its users. The company takes complete consideration of its visitors whether trying a new interface or tweaking the look of the homepage. What is more, the company fights to ensure that placement in the search engine is never sold to anyone, courtesy of a great team. The effectiveness of this approach is unmatched and especially when it comes to evaluating the customer’s experience. The impact of clients in any organization is at best exclusive and Google offers no chances of compromise to customer service. Another approach by Google in the creation of a  competitive advantage is continued iteration of problems. The company does search and features one of the greatest research groups focused exclusively in solving problems. Because of collective efforts and teamwork, the company is able to realize results and create a competitive advantage over other Search companies in the industry (Levy, 2011). The continuous improvements realized by a committed and talented team increase the effectiveness in serving customers and ensuring that they are retained. The company’s dedication towards improving the search and placement helps the team apply what is learnt in products and services like Google Maps and Gmail. The competitive advantage leveraged by the company ensures that people access and use the ever-expanding information on a daily basis. Google believes that democracy works in the web. The Google search works because it trusts and knows that recognizing the growing need of people’s voice is critical. It, therefore, relies on the million of links and posts on the websites to help determine which contents offer exquisite value. The company assesses each website and link by using approximately 2 00 signals and a range of techniques like the RankPage algorithm (Levy, 2011). The ability to tweak each person’s expectations (a voice on the internet) with a classified technology (algorithm) has given Google a competitive edge in the Search and Placement industry. In the same vein, Google Inc. is open to the development of newer and more improved software because innovation takes place in the collective participation of informed programmers. Hence, Google’s absolute dominance is courtesy of competitive approaches and techniques. One of them believes that democracy on the internet should be acknowledged and respected. After five years in the industry, Google’s experts turned to information that was not readily available. After indexing more HTML pages, the company decided to leverage a unique approach of sourcing non-available information and exploring newer paths. This technique worked because it was a matter of identifying a person’s phone number, address and directory information on the internet. The efforts to integrate newer databases into the search allowed the company to find a breakthrough in the juggernaut that had roped the information age for decades. Over time, the company realized that these efforts required more creativity like; including academic journals, patents, news archives and millions of books and images. The above efforts allowed the company to realize a competitive advantage. While many  companies dwelt in the obvious, Google found opportunities outside the ordinary and brought information across the world (Lynch, 2006). Finally, Google has employed significant efforts and creativity to ensure its position on the web is recognized and maintained. By integrating solution providers to opportunity seekers, the company realizes the potential in connecting people. What is more, the company is every day renewing its organizational structure and business processes to ensure the web is a place for all. The company’s strategy is to ensure the variety and quality of information and services is felt even in the far-flung areas of the globe (Vise & Malseed, 2005). The next part of this report describes Google’s efforts in the corporate strategy. How does the company incorporate strategies like vertical integration, diversification and globalization? What is the effectiveness of these efforts? Google’s Efforts in Corporate Strategy Corporate strategy is a fast-growing component in production. The strategy helps a company to identify loopholes and bridge the gaps through informed decisions (Thomson & Thomson, 2012). Indeed, there exist three distinct corporate strategies; globalization, vertical integration and diversification. Luckily, Google as the web king has incorporated all the three strategies in the provision of accurate and reliable information. But how has this been achieved? I.Vertical Integration Vertical integration is a combination of two or more stages of production by separate company into one company (Thomson & Thomson, 2012). Google has formed a close relationship with Facebook and YouTube. The company holds that the best approach to maximize the value of stakeholders is to maintain a long-term focus on emerging fields on the internet. As a result, the company finds Facebook and YouTube equally powerful in connecting and influencing the web in the modest fashion. Although both platforms are formed at the very foundation of Google, they required trusted identification by people signing in. A Facebook account will demand the yahoo or the Gmail sign-up email, and YouTube is exclusively strict with the Gmail account. The vertical integration between Google and Facebook has established the internet creating a long-term economic gain alongside  serving users and providing relevant information. Google explores areas far from its path of production while at the same time owning the entire operational chain. Although Google relies heavily on Facebook and YouTube, the two platforms are formed under a basic pinnacle of Google. Users have to search ‘Facebook’ and ‘YouTube’ in Google search page to access and use the platforms. This means that Google owns the entire production chain with slight limitations to usage and exploration. II.Diversification Google has invested in a range of assets in efforts to reduce non-systematic risk. When the company launched Gmail, it realized it had more space than any other email software available (Google, 2006). The company had to employ newer teams and techniques to realize even higher standards for email storage. The above efforts have catapulted Google into the attention of a global audience with millions of sign-ups every day. The company has mixed a variety of investments within its portfolio like Google Maps, Books and Images making up a force the world will reckon. The ability to come up with newer options has dealt with the risk of changes retaining a large base of clients and users. What is more, although Google Inc. shares common goals and objectives, the entire team is highly diversified as noted in the culture section ‘we speak diversified languages and come from all parts of the world’. The nature of diversity for the company has created a 360-degree, end-to-end network. Google strives for open culture through diversity by ensuring that its employees recognize and support inclusion of cultures and languages. In its weekly-all hands meetings, the company asks questions and shares opinions and ideas on common problems. Google’s offices and cafes are located everywhere so as to encourage interactions between Googlers and other teams of people (Google, 2006). Diversification is an indispensable component for the corporate strategy. The technique allows any company to stretch beyond bounds and leverage information available outside recognized boundaries. Therefore, Google in its vision and aspiration for the future has leveraged diversification as seen in the above cases improving operational processes and performances. III.Globalization International integration in the exchange of ideas, products, worldviews and other aspects of culture is a critical step of corporate strategy. The  e-commerce platform in Google as evident by online merchants and the Adsense program shows strict adherence to globalization. Google has extended to other parts of the world by allowing everyone across the globe to come up with a blog (Blogspot) and sell merchants online. What is more, Google supports conventionally designed e-commerce platforms like WordPress and Joomla. Google Inc. recognizes that globalization is acknowledging and respecting business innovations and revolutions within the entrepreneurial sphere. Google generates every dollar from advertising sales and has continuously focused on this the market with undivided attention (Yaegar & Sorensen, 2009). Google executives expect that as its presence grows in other countries, the bottom line of the company will follow suit. Luckily, without limiting options to its growth, Google has allowed many other companies to expand entrepreneurially through sales of products. EBay and Amazon are the most common merchandising platforms that offer immense value to shoppers. By connecting these platforms to the wider global community, Google’s commitment to globalization is bespoke. People have to make buying decisions every day, and Google as a company realizes that and gives everyone a chance to write a review or make a purchase for product(s). What is more, it fully supports and acknowledges ecommerce and serves to ensure that the shopping needs and concerns by people are met. Some data on Google’s financial status indicate that it receives less than two-thirds of all income domestically (Wright, 2012). However, these incomes are slated to change dramatically with changing operatio ns globally. This argument supports Google’s corporate strategy plan to globalization. What is more, it creates knowledge and insight about globalization allowing businesses to associate and interact with Google in a competitive fashion. The next part of the report examines recommendation that should be adopted by Google. These are the proposals that will serve to ensure that resources can be better leveraged in the creation of a sustainable and competitive advantage for the company. How Google Resources can be better aligned to create a Competitive Advantage Google should first take advantage of its channel function. What in the search results motivates users the most? For example, the test of Google video as offered by professionals indicated that Google sales grew up to 79% from the year 2006 (Levy, 2011). However over time, the growth rate has been consistent with limited potential for extreme growth  rates. Nowadays, Google videos are not the perfect preference by users but an alternative option (Levy, 2011). Sources like YouTube and Vimeo have taken exclusive control of this important component. Google Inc. should take advantage of its channel function by considering its first approach of verifying videos before display. Uploading of videos in Google should be a comprehensive process. Every person can upload although Google should take exclusive measures to ensure the footages meet recommended standards. What is more, each video should feature its span on the web to ensure out-dated information do not fluff Google. This recommendation supports that having standards ensures quality attracting more users and clients. What is more, Google’s BlogSpot has an excellent performance because Google terminates inappropriate and undercooked blogging platforms. The measures by Google on blogging spheres should be extended to video and footage portfolios. This would serve to ensure that YouTube and Vimeo are the only competitors who can be eliminated gradually through Google’s collected efforts. Early 2009, technicians at Googlepex designed a plan-code titled Project Oxygen. The Business Post at New York Times states that the mission by Googleplex was to design a program that was far more important than Google Inc. and the next search app (Bryant, 2011). Therefore, as the only data-mining giant, Google began to analyze feedback surveys, performance reviews and nominations for top positions at the company. The company correlated phrases, praise, words and complaints. Years later, the plan did not see the light of the day, let along being tested. The New York Times recommends Google to revisit the Project Oxygen plan as advised by its statisticians. The project will be an alternative option for the company in creating a competitive, non-challengeable presence on the internet (Bryant, 2011). Additionally, Google should consider expanding its collection of quality metrics. The acting director at the United States Patent and Trademark office Dr. Focarino recommends the company to come up with a plan that is far much inclusive (Focarino, 2013). The director identifies that the search provides more than enough opportunities for business growth. As a result, he observes that creating a team across the globe, 195 countries, will serve to ensure that the company throws the net far and wide. What is more, expanding the collection of quality metrics will serve to ensure that Google’s resources are better aligned to realize a competitive advantage in the Search Results  and Placements. There is a range of recommendations regarding Google’s dominance on the internet. Forbes states that Google as the powerhouse should initiate projects in technical universities across United States. Other recommendations are dear and near to the hearts of Google executives. There range from performance and operations to organizational structures and management systems. The next part of this study paper examines how organizational structures in Google can be aligned with management systems to realize the above recommendations. What is the relationship between Google’s organizational structures and that of its management system? How can the two be aligned to realize the above proposals? Aligning Google’s Organization with Management Systems to Realize Results The executive level at Google is uniquely positioned for the management of the company. Larry Page is responsible in leading the company’s technological strategy and developing products (Google, 2006). The executive chairman Eric Schmidt cuts the image of an executive with loyal adherence to the company from its yester years as a startup in the Silicon Valley. The list trickles down to the co-founder Sergey, Senior Vice President Brummond, Financial Officer Patrick Pichette and others like Craig Barrat, Alan Eustache, Rachel Whestone and Salar Camangnar for senior positions. The powerful executive structure means that the above recommendations like the development of Project Oxygen and creation of quality metrics can be met. Aligning organization structures with management systems involves identifying skills and pristine technology talent in people and allocating them roles in the company (Fox, 2010). The management should value talent over experience in efforts to realize a long-term goal for Google Inc. The above recommendations can be met if the company sources the exquisite talent in specified fields and supports their decisions with regard to changes and innovations. With the notion that success stems from risk, the company should bear risks and ensure that the desired expertise in management is identified and leveraged to solve common goals and meet emerging needs. Many have recommended reasons for Google’s success and some view it in complete admiration. Therefore, this means that the company is at the pinnacle of attention and adulation by any metric that you choose. The company should work to maintain the past and current success by identifying opportunities for growth as recommended. The organizational structure should ensure that  powerful programs (Project Oxygen and Expansion of Quality metrics) are realized with the right company culture. As the world of technology takes unprecedented twists and turns, the organizational executive should strive to predict the changes by recognizing talent. What is more, the working atmosphere should be designed to improve both the quality and variety of services. Recommendations for Google’s Diversification Strategy Google as a growing platform faces many opportunities for establishing a corporate diversity. However, it is equally imperative to note that any extension should be limited within the ability and scope of the company. The company should consider limiting their services to targeted audiences with no limitation to race, cultures and ethnicity. The only determining mantra should be that of usage and quality regardless of nations and divisions. What is more, Google should consider establishing itself in other areas such as commerce in software and development (Bamford, 2010). Monitoring strategic development and planning in other areas must involve contingency just in case of competitive threats. Offering support in software and development business will position the company uniquely because of it proven success. What is more, emerging companies will leverage their services because they recognize Google as a classic backdrop to exquisite technology. Google should revisit its current init iatives. The customer service and support team at the Company are exclusively automated. This means that customers who express claims are not put into direct contact with experts. Rather, they are given responses by automated systems. Although this is effective in dealing with bulky issues at the customer service desk, it falls short of quality. The WordPress community help is a classic model of what Google should consider. The community at WordPress allows experts and professionals to create profiles and offer help on behalf of the company. WordPress as a company offers incentives to ensure that the voice of customers is felt and needs addressed in the desired fashion. Google should therefore consider the above models to uphold quality in customer service and eliminate frustrations faced by automated responses. Every need and concern by clients is unique. Google diversification strategy is a close topic for this report. The approaches used by the company like those of inclusion and cultural diversity are the best imaginable. Nevertheless, they  are open to judgment. Psychologists argue that differences in backgrounds and cultures limit performances and especially if the shared goals serve the interest of many (Lynch, 2006). Google’s objective is to provide universal information and make it accessible and fulfilling. However, the foundation of the information is subject to values as advocated by varying cultures. For example, a post in Google might support why pork is the best meal for given occasions and circumstances. A Muslim professional at Google might fail to uphold and award the post’s argument although it is his best interest to serve the Company. This is just but one conflicting idea faced by the Google diversification strategy. Conclusion The report has successfully explored Google’s mission, values and goals. The study has gone further to describe Google’s approach in sustainable competition and corporate strategy. What is more, the essay has documented the effectiveness of the efforts by Google in corporate strategy in areas like vertical integration, globalization and diversification. It was within the best interest of the paper to project recommendations regarding the alignment of Google’s organizational structure with that of its management system. What is more, the study offered knowledge on the company’s senior level and their functions in the execution of strategic management. Finally, the report navigated across business areas where Google should establish itself and sections that need to be revisited. The above observation and analysis as supported by scholarly articles and scientific literatures surmises the report adding knowledge and insight into Google Inc. References Bamford, C. E., & West, P. G. (2010). Strategy: Sustainable advantage and performance. Canada: South Western Cengage Learning Bryant, A. (2011). Google’s Quest to Build a Better Deal. Business Day. New York Times. Retrieved From Focarino, A. N (2013). Comments of Google Inc with Regard to Draft Operational Plan for 2014 – 2018 Fox, V. (2010). Marketing in the age of Google: A non-technical guide to search engine strategy. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons. Google (2006). 10 Things We Know to be True. Google Inc. Retrieved From Levy, S. (2011). In the plex: How Google thinks, works, and shapes our lives. New York: Simon & Schuster. Lynch, R. L. (2006). Corporate strategy. Harlow, England: FT/Prentice Hall. Stross, R. E. (2008). Planet Google: One company’s audacious plan to organize everything we know. New York: Free Press. Thompson, A. A., & Thompson, A. A. (2012). Crafting and executing strategy: The quest for competitive advantage: concepts and cases. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Vise, D. A., & Malseed, M. (2005). The Google story. New York: Delacorte Press. Wright, S. (2012). Competitive intelligence, analysis and strategy: Creating organizational agility. London: Routledge. Yaeger, T. F., & Sorensen, P. F. (2009). Strategic organization development: Managing change for success. Charlotte, N.C: Information Age Pub.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Critically analyse and apply the theory underpinning one intervention with a dually diagnosed client. Contrasting this intervention with other techniques. The WritePass Journal

Critically analyse and apply the theory underpinning one intervention with a dually diagnosed client. Contrasting this intervention with other techniques. Conclusion Critically analyse and apply the theory underpinning one intervention with a dually diagnosed client. Contrasting this intervention with other techniques. IntroductionAn introduction to C-Bit Achievable Goal setting Behavioural ExperimentsEstablishing supportive social networksLimitations of its useAlternative approachesMotivational interviewingConclusionRelated Introduction Dual diagnosis has been described as one of the most significant problems facing the health services (Phillips et al 2010). The term was first used in America in the 1980s and in its most basic elements describes someone who has a combination of a mental illness and substance misuse problem.   Dually diagnosed patients are often frequent users of emergency services and of in-patient care (Bartels et al 1993). There is also a much higher rate of offending and imprisonment amongst this group (Yesavage and Zarcone 1983 cited in Menezes et al (1996). Yesvage and Zarcone cited in Menezes (1996) believe that alcohol and drug misuse interact with the symptoms of psychotic illness to produce a more severe acute illness.   Due to the complication of treatment approach recovery is often slower than a psychotic episode uncomplicated by substance abuse.   This places a great burden on resources and staff (Drake et al 1993), which is corroborated by the London survey   (Menezes et al 1996 ) discovering on average that this group of patients spends almost twice as much time in hospital than those without a substance misuse problem. Clients with the most severe psychiatric disorders tend to have the highest rates of co-occurring substance use disorders (Drake 2007). It has been well documented that the co-existence of severe mental health and substance misuse problems are common (Regier et al 1990; Krausz et al 1996; Menezes et al 1996 cited in Graham 2003). Prevalence figures vary across studies however the latest study by Weldon and Ritchie (2010) estimate the lifetime prevalence rate of substance abuse amongst persons with severe mental illness at 50%, which is 4.6 times higher than that of the general population (Blanchard et al 2000). One of the challenges of mental health providers is how best to meet the needs of this group of clients (Graham 2003). The most recent government guidance is one of integrated treatment whereby the treatment for drug and alcohol problems are provided primarily within mental health services, integrating this with the treatment of mental health problems   (DoH 2002). This is to be provided by one team and involves a flexible combination of treatments targeting the specific needs of those diagnosed with co-morbid severe mental illness and substance misuse (Horsfall 2009). Researchers and clinicians have developed a number of interventions that combine, or integrate mental health and substance abuse interventions (Drake et al 2007). An example of one element of   integrated treatment is Cognitive- Behavioural Integrated Treatment (Graham and Carnwath 2004). C-bit incorporates an integrated approach with personalised formulation to deliver improved treatment outcomes to dual diagnosis patients. The focus of this essay will be on the use of C-bit (Graham and Carnwath 2004) and its application with a client who has been has been diagnosed with schizophrenia and alcohol problems. For the purpose of this essay and confidentiality his name has been changed to David. C-bit can be split into 4 distinct phases, Engagement and Building motivation, Negotiating some behaviour change, Early relapse prevention Relapse management. The essay will concentrate on negotiating behavioural change and what this entails. The author will then compare its effectiveness with an alternative approach. An introduction to C-Bit Hermine Graham (2004) describes C-bit as a psychological multi-purpose tool designed specifically for people with both a mental illness and a problematic substance misuse.   It was developed from CBT which had a strong evidence base for mental health (Grant et al 2004) and substance use problems (Conrod and Stewart 2005).   The evidence base of CBIT in dual diagnosis remains poor as studies have tended to focus on engagement and building motivation as appose to the maintenance of change that CBIT encompasses (Callaghan and Jones 2010). However early studies would suggest that the skilful use of analysis, disputing cognitions and homework assignments improve the skills required to promote abstinence including self-efficacy in finding, establishing and maintaining appropriate support networks (Rassool 2002). CBIT follows the cognitive model and treatment approach (Graham 1998, 2003). A clients beliefs about substance misuse are often linked to their own experience of mental health problems. David would often say in therapy that the side effects of his anti-psychotic medication made him feel over sedated and this had a knock on effect in social situations. He found that alcohol improved this and allowed him to integrate better in social situations. By continuing to use alcohol it was maintaining a negative maintenance cycle. Graham (2004) identifies three key aims of CBIT with dual diagnosis patients. The first concentrates on client and therapist identifying and challenging unrealistic beliefs about substance misuse and substituting them with alternatives that aim to break negative maintenance cycles. The second facilitates an understanding of the link between substance misuse and mental health problems and thirdly CBIT aims to give the client the ability to self-manage substance misuse and recognise the early signs of relapse.   Although there are 4 distinct steps in treatment approach the flexibility of the treatment means a client does not need to progress through them all. The harm reduction philosophy that underpins the intervention (Heather et al 1993) puts more emphasis on a client setting more realistic goals and achieving these. Although flexibility is a key asset of CBIT it would be wrong to assume there was no structure to therapy sessions. In later sessions especially, before commencing a session client and therapist must set an agenda to discuss which ensures key areas are discussed (Graham 2004). In practice, teams trained in the use of CBIT tend to use the general principle of the approach rather than the distinct components or techniques (Graham et al 2006). The author believes this shows the flexibility of the therapy and therapists and clients find what proves useful to them . Graham et al (2006) also discovered that when trained members of the team used various assets of CBIT, engagement increased, alcohol intake was reduced and a reduction in alcohol-related beliefs. The study however noticed similar findings when the client had been seen by teams that had not yet received CBIT training suggesting that CBIT alone was not responsible for the change in behaviour and belief. However, qualitative information recorded from the teams’ staff suggested that treatment integration increased over the course of the study, and that CBIT was a useful tool for integrating planning substance misuse treatment. Qualitative information from the team managers suggested that CBIT tr aining improved the ability of teams to address substance use by themselves, rather than avoiding substance issues referring clients to specialists. Achievable Goal setting Following treatment phase one the client will be able to identify some of the negative effects of substance misuse. David could recognise the negative effect that alcohol use had on his ability to find any form of employment and how he had no real supportive social network besides ‘drinking companions’. Graham (2004) highlights that in treatment phase two it is probably too early for a client to consider complete abstinence. David was beginning to make links with the amount he drank and the negative effects he was having. Due to this he negotiated with the therapist that he would reduce his alcohol input by stopping all spirits but remaining on his strong lager. This follows the harm reduction philosophy that there are several levels in which change can occur that would reduce the negative impact it causes to the client. David identified his long-term goal as eventually getting some form of employment. Following treatment phase one David was able to see the impact excess ive impact alcohol was having on his ability to make appointments on time (if at all), and how this would have a negative effect on any chance of employment. Graham (2004) suggests that for a client to get to this long-term goal a series of short term harm reducing steps need to be identified by the client in therapy that will in-turn have a positive impact upon his life. David had already agreed to stop drinking spirits but further steps included reducing contact with fellow drinkers, attending all appointments on time, getting his body back into a work routine. These steps would move David closer to the eventual long term goal and give him the belief that this was achievable. The therapist found that the use of the recovery star was a useful tool with aiding the client identify and plan how to achieve these goals. The recovery star helps both client and therapist measure change and visually see progress made. At times when David struggled to achieve goals it provided an opportunit y for discussion on how to change the approach. David found the tool useful in between sessions where he could refer back to past successes to give him the confidence to continue.   On reflective sessions what proved important for David was to identify and discuss possible obstacles that he may experience in trying to achieve his goals and to recognise that if things do not go as planned it should not be automatically assumed to be a failure. Simmons and Griffith (2009) believe that there is never a failure but an opportunity to learn and do things differently. Behavioural Experiments By treatment phase two of CBIT the client will have identified an unhelpful thought, the nature of which will be maintaining a negative maintenance cycle. David had begun to plan harm reduction goals to reduce the negative aspects of his substance misuse however there was clearly some situations he was avoiding, and some underlying maladaptive thoughts there were perpetuating his problems. To address this the therapist and David discussed and designed a Behavioural Experiment. Beck (1995) believes that BEs   strengthen an intellectual belief by helping the client test out alternative beliefs and thoughts in practice in order to gain evidence to discover the validity of a belief . Beck (1979) believed through altering behaviour a cognitive change occurs. BEs are significant as a means of explicitly targeting belief change through experience and as such offer prime opportunities for sustained therapeutic change (Padesky 2004). David held the belief that if he did not drink alcohol he would appear boring and no-one would have any time for him. For this reason when David was going to be in the company of anyone he would drink excessively, therefore getting intoxicated became a safety behaviour.   By allowing a client to see what will happen if they drop safety behaviour and then testing out what actually happens in that situation proves to be a powerful challenge to unhelpful assumptions (Whitfield and Davidson 2007).   Sloan and Telch (2002) support this view adding that experiments target safety behaviours result in significantly greater changes than exposure alone. Safety behaviour may seem helpful and protective to a client but can lead to maintenance cycles of maladaptive processes perpetuating the initial belief. If a threat is not disconfirmed the maladaptive cognition continues (Salkovskis 1991, Sloan and Telch 2000, Clark 1989, Salkovski et al 1998). The notion of experimentation, derived from scientific principles, can be applied to the patient†™s experience of the therapeutic process and it is this active experience which can be so meaningful; the validity of a new cognition being generally more memorable when followed through from conceptualisation to active experience (Westbrook 2007). Once the evidence contradicts the initial belief it allows the client and therapist to explore the validity of new more adaptive beliefs (Westbrook et al 2007). David and the therapist designed an experiment in which he would limit his alcohol approach and would then engage in general conversation in his local pub. Initial experiments gave David the confidence to build on further experiment supporting the work of Bennett-levy (2004) who believe early experiments increase confidence and independence BEs can be active, where the patient takes the lead role in either real or simulated situations to test the validity of thoughts, or observational, where data is gathered. Lewin and Kolb propose a learning cycle in which it suggests that for learning and retention to be enhanced the client must build upon knowledge and understanding gained through the experiment which in turn forms a foundation for the next step of the experiment. (Lewin 1946; Kolb 1984). The five key aspects of this learning cycle, Experience, Observation, Reflection, Planning and then further experiment underpins BE work. Establishing supportive social networks In the field of substance misuse social factors are seen as important in the onset, aetiology and maintenance of substance misuse (Graham 2004). David recognised that as his alcohol intake increased the friends he associated with were also using alcohol regularly. This supports the work of Drake (2004) who identified that clients with both severe mental health problems and substance misuse problems would have social networks of solely fellow substance users. David felt increasingly isolated from anyone outside of this network as his behaviour would draw attention towards himself. Trumbetta et al (1999) suggest that for anyone to make changes in substance misuse they need to reduce contact with such peers. Healthier networks need to be formed which provide positive support where there is excessive substance misuse is not the norm (Drake 1993a). David identified his sister as someone who was willing to and who he would like as a supportive person away from mental health services. In cr isis David could contact his sister who could give him some level of support. Graham (2004) emphasises the importance of working closely with family members as they often know very little about dual diagnosis problems. David was only close with his sister. The rest of his family had isolated him due to his substance misuse. Ideally psycho-education information is often given in the group setting as family members may benefit from the experience and support of fellow members (Graham 2004). David’s sister became a key figure in David’s recovery and was encouraged to attend sessions on psycoeducation so she could best understand the problems associated with dual diagnosis clients and how best she could support David. Limitations of its use Prochaska and DiClemente (1992) recognised certain barriers to treatment for dual diagnosis patients in regards to therapeutic engagement, treatment continuance and goal setting. In the case of CBIT it makes assumptions of a certain level of coping skills and ability to facilitate cognitive change. Symptoms of schizophrenia can inhibit a client’s impetus to change behaviour (Horsfall et al 2009). Negative symptoms which have a negative effect on motivation and energy affects individuals internal drive to initiate the complex behavioural routines needed for abstinence (Ballack and DiClemente 1999). An integrated treatment approach incorporating CBIT does not make dramatic changes in the short term, it is a long term therapy. Evidence based studies are always plagued by attrition rates as clients relapse or do not return to the study. This may suggest that CBIT may suffer from the same poor treatment compliance/attendance. For clients who complete a full programme of treatment 1 0-20 per cent achieves a stable remission of their substance use problems per year (Graham 2004). This seems a low figure for the intensive input required on the part of the therapist and client. Bellack and Gearon (1998) believe the therapist must become tolerant of this client group dropping in and out of therapy and abstaining then relapsing. David’s attendance was at times sporadic but the therapist never criticised him for this but used it as a platform for discussing problems experienced through the week. Drake et al (2001) suggests the importance of assertive outreach teams in retaining clients within programmes. Hellerstein et al (1995) cited in Philips et al (2010) highlight that without this input dropout rates may be high, especially amongst those identified as having difficulties participating in treatment. Alternative approaches The evidence base for dual diagnosis is still in its infancy.   Those studies completed have limited generalisation due to methodological issues such as heterogeneous samples, equivocal descriptions of treatment components and high attrition rates (Weldon and Richie 2010). Horsfall et al (2009) recognises that due to a lack of longitudinal studies long term outcomes have yet to be determined. It also proves difficult to compare C-Bit with alternative interventions as C-Bit is not used in a vacuum it is often used in conjunction with other therapies such as pharmaceuticals of motivational interviewing. Kemp et al (2007) found a significant improvement in substance use in dual diagnosis patients when CBT and MI principle were combined. For the purpose of this essay the author will briefly look at one main alternative approach to dual diagnosis, that of motivational interviewing. Motivational interviewing Treasure (2004) describes MI as a patient centred counselling approach that facilitates the patient in resolve and explore ambivalence about behaviour change. The theory of MI centres on the cycle of change and its six components,   precontemplation, contemplation, decision, action, maintenance of change and relapse. Miller and Rollnick (1994) describes motivation as something that one does as appose to something that one has. Empathy is vital in the therapeutic relationship and the use of MI. If the client believes the therapist has no appreciation of their experience they are likely to dis-engage or not fully commit to therapy. Rassool (2002) believes active listening also has an important role in MI. Reflecting back to the client their thoughts, fears, hopes and doubts give a feeling of genuineness, trust and empathy. In MI it is important not to offer advice , give judgement or attempt to question. The reason for behavioural change should be acknowledged and stated by the clien t. MI proves an effective therapy in dual diagnosis if delivered effectively. The therapist needs to avoid confrontation as this will lead to client denial, the role of the therapist as expert proves counter-productive and structured answer formats will inhibit the client in recognising the effects of their substance misuse. Motivational styles that guide a client in discovering alternative ways of thinking about their problems results in positive change (Miller and Rollnick 1991). By combining elements of style and technique MI has proven successful in dual diagnosis patients and has a developing evidence base. It proves difficult to contrast MI with CBIT as both complement each other so well and have similar approaches. Both are based on a collaborative relationship with clients, both incorporate a non-judgemental approach and both are approaches are built on empathy, warmth, trust and positive regard (Rogers, 1991). Both approaches also incorporate socratic questioning techniques encouraging the client to discover alternative meanings of their experience (Padesky and Greenberger 1995). One of the key differences is when it is best to use either technique. Those following a transtheoretical model of change may use MI when the client remains undecided about change in the precontemplation and contemplation stage whereas CBIT can be adopted when the client is more committed to change (Treasure 2004). This would support the work of Drake et al (2001) who after studying the work of a number of researchers believe that to enhance attendance and utilisation of treatment motivation interventions a re important. Conclusion    The research on the impact of CBIT as a therapeutic intervention is still in its infancy. Some anecdotal evidence would suggest it provides the skills necessary to promote abstinence (Rassool 2002). Qualitative information gained from Grahams (2006) study suggests CBIT proved a useful tool for integrating and planning substance misuse. Due to the complex nature of dual diagnosis it seems unlikely that a single intervention will have the desired effect of meeting all the clients’ needs. Kemp (2007) supports this finding an improvement in substance misuse when MI and CBIT were combined. Due to this there has been a shift towards the integration of interventions delivered by mainstream mental health services (DOH 2002, 2006;Rassool 2002; Ziedonis et al. 2005). Some of the strongest treatment effects have come from combining a number of approaches (Barrowclough et al 2001).

Monday, October 21, 2019

communism1 essays

communism1 essays Communism has failed in Europe because of its lack of care for the individual, its corrupt leaders and also because it went against human nature. Two novels that demonstrate this statement are the semi-autobiographical We the Living by Ayn Rand, and Julian Barnes' The Porcupine. According to Ayn Rand, Communists were pitiless. When Kira, the protagonist of the story, begged for help to save her lover's life, the only answer she received from the general was "Why - in the face of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics- can't one aristocrat die?" (216). Communists say that they want everyone to be equal and have a good life, yet they contradict themselves in that they don't acknowledge each individual, which is the make-up of their so-called "collect." Since individuals didn't matter, people lived poorly. In Maria Petrovna's words, "'These are hard times, God have pity on us, these are hard times'" (27). Communism crushed people's hopes and it also broke them down. " 'We have no future,'" (27) said Simon. Barnes showed how people didn't matter in a Communist society by showing how people were exhausted. "People had been too busy, or too tired, to make love; that was another thing that had broken down...During the last statistical year, the number of live births had been exceeded both by the number of abortions and by the number of deaths" (63). Individual lives just didn't matter. Because people were so unhappy, they did not support the government. To maintain its standing, the government had to make sure that everyone lived in fear. This would decrease the chance of rebellion. In one of his articles, Steven Morewood talks about Gorbachev, a Communist leader. "Gorbachev concedes 'The totalitarian model had relied on dictatorship and violence, and I can see that this was not acceptable to the people'" (33) Neglect of the individual was not Communism's only fault. Corruption among its leaders was also very common. In We the Livin...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

USS Oriskany CV-34 US NavyAircraft Carrier

USS Oriskany CV-34 US NavyAircraft Carrier USS Oriskany (CV-34)   Overview Nation: United StatesType: Aircraft CarrierShipyard: New York Naval ShipyardLaid Down: May 1, 1944Launched: October 13, 1945Commissioned: September 25, 1950Fate: Sunk as artificial reef in 2006 Specifications (as built) Displacement: 30,800 tonsLength: 904 ft.Beam: 129 ft.Draft: 30 ft., 6 in.Propulsion: 8 Ãâ€" boilers, 4 Westinghouse geared turbines, 4 shaftsSpeed: 33 knotsRange: 20,000 miles at 15 knotsComplement: 2,600 men Aircraft 90-100 aircraft USS Oriskany (CV-34) Construction Laid down at the New York Naval Shipyard on May 1, 1944, USS Oriskany (CV-34) was intended to be a long-hull Essex-class aircraft carrier. Named for the 1777 Battle of Oriskany which was fought during the American Revolution, the carrier was launched on October 13, 1945 with Ida Cannon serving as sponsor. With the end of World War II, work on Oriskany was halted in August 1947 when the vessel was 85% complete. Assessing its needs, the US Navy redesigned Oriskany to serve as the prototype for the new SCB-27 modernization program. This called for the installation of more powerful catapults, stronger elevators, a new island layout, and the addition of blisters to the hull. Many of upgrades made during the SCB-27 program were intended to allow the carrier to handle the jet aircraft that were coming into service. Completed in 1950, Oriskany was commissioned on September 25 with Captain Percy Lyon in command. Early Deployments Departing New York in December, Oriskany conducted training and shakedown exercises in the Atlantic and Caribbean into early 1951. With these complete, the carrier embarked Carrier Air Group 4 and began a deployment to the Mediterranean with the 6th Fleet that May. Returning in November, Oriskany entered the yard for an overhaul which saw changes to its island, flight deck, and steering system. With the completion of this work in May 1952, the ship received orders to join the Pacific Fleet. Rather than use the Panama Canal, Oriskany sailed around South America and made port calls at Rio de Janeiro, Valparaiso, and Callao. After conducting training exercises near San Diego, Oriskany crossed the Pacific to support United Nations forces during the Korean War. Korea After a port call in Japan, Oriskany joined Task Force 77 off the coast of Korea in October 1952. Commencing air strikes against enemy targets, the carriers aircraft attacked troop positions, supply lines, and artillery emplacements. In addition, Oriskanys pilots had success in combating Chinese MiG-15 fighters. With the exception of brief overhaul in Japan, the carrier remained in action until April 22, 1953 when it left the Korean coast and proceeded to San Diego. For its service in Korean War, Oriskany was awarded two battle stars. Spending the summer in California, the carrier underwent routine upkeep before returning to Korea that September. Operating in the Sea of Japan and East China Sea, it worked to maintain the uneasy peace which had been established in July. In the Pacific Following another Far East deployment, Oriskany arrived at San Francisco in August 1956. Decommissioned on January 2, 1957, it entered the yard to undergo a SCB-125A modernization. This saw the addition of an angled flight deck, enclosed hurricane bow, steam catapults, and improved elevators. Taking over two years to complete, Oriskany was re-commissioned on March 7, 1959 with Captain James M. Wright in command. After conducting a deployment to the Western Pacific in 1960, Oriskany was overhauled the following year and became the first carrier to receive the US Navys new Naval Tactical Data System. In 1963, Oriskany arrived off the coast of South Vietnam to safeguard American interests following a coup detat which saw President Ngo Dinh Diem deposed. Vietnam War Overhauled at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in 1964, Oriskany conducted refresher training off the West Coast before being directed to sail for the Western Pacific in April 1965. This was in response to the American entry into the Vietnam War. Largely carrying an air wing equipped with LTV F-8A Crusaders and Douglas A4D Skyhawks, Oriskany began combat operations against North Vietnamese targets as part of Operation Rolling Thunder. Over the next several months the carrier operated from either Yankee or Dixie Station depending on the targets to be attacked. Flying over 12,000 combat sorties, Oriskany earned the Navy Unit Commendation for its performance. A Deadly Fire Returning to San Diego in December 1965, Oriskany underwent an overhaul before again steaming for Vietnam. Resuming combat operations in June 1966, the carrier was struck by tragedy later that year. On October 26, a massive fire erupted when a mishandled magnesium parachute flare ignited in the forward flare locker of Hangar Bay 1. This flare led to the explosion of around 700 other flares in the locker. Fire and smoke quickly spread through the forward part of the ship. Though damage control teams were finally able to extinguish the fire, it killed 43 men, many of them pilots, and wounded 38. Sailing to Subic Bay, Philippines, the wounded were removed from Oriskany and damaged carrier began the voyage back to San Francisco. Back to Vietnam Repaired, Oriskany returned to Vietnam in July 1967. Serving as the flagship of Carrier Division 9, it resumed combat operations from Yankee Station on July 14. On October 26, 1967, one of Oriskanys pilots, Lieutenant Commander John McCain, was shot down over North Vietnam. A future senator and presidential candidate, McCain endured over five years as a prisoner of war. As had become a pattern, Oriskany completed its tour in January 1968 and underwent an overhaul at San Francisco. This complete, it arrived back off Vietnam in May 1969. Operating from Yankee Station, Oriskanys aircraft attacked targets on the Ho Chi Minh Trail as part of Operation Steel Tiger. Flying strike missions through the summer, the carrier sailed for Alameda in November. In dry dock over the winter, Oriskany was upgraded to handle the new LTV A-7 Corsair II attack aircraft. This work complete, Oriskany commenced its fifth Vietnam deployment on May 14, 1970. Continuing attacks on the Ho Chi Minh Trail, the carriers air wing also flew diversionary strikes as part of the Son Tay rescue mission that November. After another overhaul at San Francisco that December, Oriskany departed for its sixth tour off Vietnam. En route, the carrier encountered four Soviet Tupolev TU-95 Bear strategic bombers east of the Philippines. Launching, fighters from Oriskany shadowed the Soviet aircraft as they moved through the area. Completing its deployment in November, the carrier moved through its usual pattern of upkeep in San Francisco before returning to Vietnam in June 1972. Though Oriskany was damaged in a collision with the ammunition ship USS Nitro on June 28, it remained on station and took part in Operation Linebacker. Continuing to hammer enemy targets, the carriers aircraft remained active until January 27, 1973 when the Paris Peace Accords were signed. Retirement After conducting final strikes in Laos in mid-February, Oriskany sailed for Alameda in late March. Refitting, the carrier began a new mission to the Western Pacific which saw it operate in the South China Sea before conducting training in the Indian Ocean. The ship remained in region until mid-1974. Entering Long Beach Naval Ship Yard in August, work began to overhaul the carrier. Completed in April 1975, Oriskany conducted a final deployment to the Far East later that year. Returning home in March 1976, it was designated for deactivation the following month due to defense budget cuts and its old age. Decommissioned on September 30, 1976, Oriskany was held in reserve at Bremerton, WA until being struck from the Navy List on July 25, 1989. Sold for scrap in 1995, Oriskany was reclaimed by the US Navy two years later as the buyer had made no progress in demolishing the ship. Taken to Beaumont, TX, the US Navy announced in 2004 that the ship would be given to the State of Florida for use as an artificial reef. After extensive environmental remediation to remove toxic substances from the vessel, Oriskany was sunk off the coast of Florida on May 17, 2006. The largest vessel to be used as an artificial reef, the carrier has become popular with recreational divers. Selected Sources NavSource: USS OriskanyOriskany HistoryDANFS: USS  Oriskany  (CV-34)

Saturday, October 19, 2019

How to increase productivity Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

How to increase productivity - Assignment Example ity include taking medical covers for the employees, enhancing communications within the firm and sponsoring advanced studies to sharpen the skills and expertise of specific employees in a firm. These are some of the actions that a management team can adopt to increase the productivity in a firm. Taking medical covers for the employees ensures that the workers are not worried of their health and whenever a health issue arises, it is quickly controlled and the person resumes to duty (Chowdhry et al). Communication is also important in regard to productivity because with proper communication all the challenges facing performance can be controlled. Managers should ensure that both up-ward and down-ward communications are effective and all departments are in harmony in their operations. In order to precise determine the factors that affect productivity and the measures that can be undertaken to increase productivity, it is important to conduct a research. The main objective of the research will be to confirm and ascertain whether the factors mentioned above contribute to the increase in productivity in organizations. The research should involve interviewing employees and the management teams of a least five top performing firms. The information required can be collected through interviews, questionnaires and surveys on their