Saturday, August 31, 2019

Palamon Love Essay

Palamon wants Arcite to let his eyes of Emily and not interfere, but Arcite says â€Å"l loved her first as women and on my head I swear, love is a greater law than any other that may be given to any earthly man. † (pg. 89) love replaces all other commitments. They both show each other how much they love Emily. Later on, they both somehow manage to get out of prison. First, Arcite got out and after seven years Palamon. They both suddenly meet at grove in ngry looks and want to fight for Emily, while Theseus appearing there too with his wife and Emily. At first Theseus wanted to kill them, but seeing the situation of theirs he changes his mind and sets up arena for them to fght. They both are ready to do anything to grant Emily as wife. Then, Theseus builds 3 temples. Venus (the goddess of love), Mars (the god of war), and Diana (the goddess of chastity). Palamon went to Venus to ask to get Emily, Arcite went to Mars to ask to win the war, and Emily went to Diana to ask to say virgin or else marry a guy love her the most. After that, the battle begun and Arcite won the war with the help of the god that he visited, and Palamon lost, but in the end Palamon won and got Emily. Palamon won because of Pluto who sent earthquake at Saturn’s request for Venus. Arcite dies because of earthquake and fell from his horse and hits his head to ground. He died as noble knight to get Emily, and didn’t care about his brotherhood relationship with Palamon while fghing against him for Emily. The knight is noble, conqueror, gentle and has pity, which he is similar to Theseus the character in the story that he is telling. The gentle duke jumped down from his horse with pitying heart as he heard them speak†. (pg. 77) Theseus takes pity on those women that he meets on his way and gives what the women asked for. Which it looks like that the Knight is describing himself as Theseus. He likes fghting from the beginning so he made arrangement for Arcite and Palamon to fght over Emily. The story starts with battle of Amazons and after he marries the queen of Amazon as price of winning a battle besides the story also ends with Palamon marrying Emily in which he also get her by winning the battle.

Friday, August 30, 2019

2008 Ap English (Rhetorical Strategies)

Barry expresses his use of rhetorical strategies through is book The Great Influenza, using anaphora, metaphors, tone, contrast, imagery, word choice, repetition of words, and ethos to drive his claim that being a scientist requires dealing with a huge amount of uncertainty, and takes courage, patience, and curiosity to succeed. Barry starts off with a comparison, an antithetical concept: certainty vs. uncertainty. Beginning with a universal truth, defining complete opposites, intensifies the revelation of the paradox in the second paragraph that scientists thrive on uncertainty.His use of anaphora further solidifies the wisdom that certainty is positive and uncertainty negative. As he goes on talking about what is required to become a scientist he uses a rather common strategy classification, as he lists traits, receiving the highest order of these traits are intelligence, curiosity, and purpose. â€Å"It is not the courage†¦Ã¢â‚¬ , â€Å"It is the courage†¦Ã¢â‚¬  is y et another use of anaphora to refine connotations associated with â€Å"courage† through negation of common concepts.Ending his second paragraph with reference to Claude Bernard, Barry is using the famous rhetorical strategy ethos. On the third paragraph he is still talking about scientists but he switches from â€Å"To be a scientist†¦Ã¢â‚¬  to â€Å"A Scientist†¦Ã¢â‚¬  changing from abstraction to practical. In this paragraph he also uses another reference to someone known and praised in the science world, this time Einstein. This could be looked at as ethos but also as an appeal to an authority. Initiating the thought of if he didn’t do it why should we.As he talks about how scientist could lose their â€Å"works† and â€Å"even beliefs† leaving them only to â€Å"believe in the process of inquiry† I take on pathos because that is powerful to think about losing everything, that definitely takes courage. But as he ends with â€Å"T o move.. † your left with a hopeful tone. You could lose everything but you keep moving on. The next paragraph uses great rhetorical strategies, allusion, simile, and metaphor to build on top of each other creating intensity. â€Å"Through the looking glass† is an allusion suggesting going into a world that isn’t real r doesn’t appear to be. This leads to the simile â€Å"like a crystal†, which suggestion setting off a chain of events beyond the control of a scientist. Then ends with a metaphor â€Å"off a cliff† suggesting some steps could mean the end. As he proceeds to talk about a scientist career style of a scientist, he presents imagery of a scientist a work by creating a slight example with a shovel digging up dirt, asking a series of question to represent the thought process of a scientist. This imagery continues on to the next paragraph, and then in his ending paragraph the tone shifts. Not at all†¦Ã¢â‚¬  is a negation of previ ous paragraphs reminding you what is common to scientist’s id not in all scientists. The reputation of â€Å"experiments† and â€Å"yield†, changing the meaning: first meaning to produce as in â€Å"yielding a bumper crop† to suggest giving up as in â€Å"yielding to a superior force† Through Barry’s use of all of these rhetorical strategies, it is clear Barry is aware of the uncertainty science contains and the courage and strength it takes scientists to deal with this, and keep moving forward.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Are We Now Living in One World? Essay

The concept of the world becoming ‘as one’, is a concept which has been widely been contested by many writers on subjects such as modernisation, globalisation, and equality to name a few. It is quite clear from out everyday lives in how some aspects of our lives are clearly influenced by other cultures, such as the availability of Indian takeaways on every high street. Robertson (1992) suggests that the world began to become more integrated with the European voyages of discovery and colonisation in the 15th Century.1 Turner (1994) has shown how there has been a global economy since the 17th Century.2 Yet other theorists claim that it is a much more recent development. In this essay I intend to look at many of these theories and in particular look at theories of modernisation, and globalisation. Modernisation replaced the older traditional forms of societies based on agriculture. Parsons (1966) has referred to the evolution of societies as a â€Å"process of modernisatio n†. This presumes all societies to be eventually heading towards the modern stage. This can be applied to the theory of globalisation in that he is saying that all societies will become similar and ‘modern’.3 Rostow (1971) used a similar model to explain human society, in his eyes it was both evolutionary and possessed an ‘inner logic’ which leads societies to ‘modernisation’.4 In the opinion of Giddens (1990), globalisation originated from modernisation. It is a continuation of the trends from modernisation processes in 18th Century Europe. Modernisation is based on processes of disembedding. It ‘dis-embeds’ feudal individuals from fixed identities in space and time. This is known as the ‘time-space distanciation’, which I shall examine in further detail shortly. It is used to explain the historic move from traditional to modern societies and the part played by globalisation in speeding up the modernisation process. 5 Gidd ens (1991) suggests that the modernisation process entails four major sets of ‘institutional complexes of modernity’. These are administrative power, military power, capitalism and industrialism. 6 Administrative power refers to the growth and development of the secular nation state based on rational and bureaucratic forms of administration of its population and law and order. Capitalism and industrialism represent new forms of production based and centred on factory and industrial production. Militarism is based upon technology and professional armies in modern societies.7 In France, the word for globalisation is mondialisation. In Spain and Latin America, it is globalizacion. The Germans say globaliserung. This shows how far the term has spread and how widely used it is. It is said by many writers such as Giddens (1999) and Beck (2001) that we are now living in a cosmopolitan society which is forming around us. It is emerging in an anarchic haphazard, fashion carried along by a mixture of economic, technological and cultural imperatives.8 Robertson (1996) defines globalisation as a concept, â€Å"Which refers to both the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole†¦Ã¢â‚¬ 9 Giddens (1991) takes the view that globalisation is an equalising process as it gives previously disempowered groups and nations the potential to realise their goals. He has spoken of globalisation generating â€Å"reverse colonialism† which means that non- western countries influence developments in the west. Examples of this are the Latinising of Los Angeles, the emergence of a globally orientated high tech sector in India and the selling of Brazilian TV programmes to Portugal.10 For Giddens (1994) globalisation is a social process which results in, â€Å"†¦ Larger and larger numbers of people living in circumstances in which disembedded institutions, linking local practises with globalised social relations, organise major aspects of day to day life.†11 However, he sees it as a contradictory and uneven process. He claims that it ‘pulls away’ from local communities and uses the example of the weakening of the capacities and power from nation states in the hands of supra national political organisations. It is also said to ‘push down’ as it may present local communities with new possibilities and demands, such as the increase of nationalist movements, for example, in Scotland.12 Globalisation is said to emanate from the 1960s as this is when aspects of the modernisation process received added impetus as a result of globalisation. In late modernity there is a world capitalist system which is dominated by Trans-National Corporations (TNCs) which operate independently of nation states. TNCs can be the dominant economic actor especially in ‘developing countries’.13 In industrialism Giddens (1994) claims there has been a development of the International Division of Labour in which local industries are incorporated. Previously separate and distinct industries are now involved in trading raw materials and components with each other. He also mentions how ‘industrialisation’ now includes the ‘service’ and ‘culture’ industries. These industries are now internationally based.14 The administrative powers of the nation state grow due to the increasing ‘internationalisation’ of state relations through the sharing and pooling of knowledges and hardware states can increase their powers of surveillance and control over populations.15 Military power has become globalised through the increasing alliances between states, which empowers members of each alliance.16 This can be seen today in the alliance between the UK and the US in fighting the war against terrorism in Afghanistan. The concept of ethnocentricism can see seen as a criticism of globalisation as most of the developments benefit the richer Western countries rather than equalising wealth. Gilroy (1995) has illustrated this by saying that the West has used the ‘rest’ of the world, especially regarding the use of slavery by which to ‘modernise’. 17 Parsons saw the West as the sole source of modernisation, and globalisation is said to have come from modernisation.18 Giddens (1999) speaks of how all giant multinational companies come from rich countries, most being based in the US. It can also be seen that global poverty remains at scandalous levels and millions of people around the world have little, if any, democratic rights. The share of the world’s population in global income has dropped from 2.3% to 1.4% from 1989 to 1999. The proportion taken by the richest fifth has risen from 70% to 85%. In Sub-Sahara Africa, 20 countries have lower incomes per head in real terms than they did twenty years ago. In many less developed countries, safety and environmental regulations are low or virtually non-existent. Some TNC’s sell goods in these countries that are controlled or banned in developed countries, such as poor quality medical drugs, destructive pesticides and high tar and nicotine cigarettes. 19 Tanzania’s debt of à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½4.5 billion is 152% of its GNP. 85% of the Zambian population lives in absolute poverty.20 The abandonment of the term ‘third world’ can be an indicator of the alleged convergence of the world. The term originates from the belief that the group of countries it stood for would develop to modernity by a third route that differed from that of the ‘first world’ or the ‘second’. The ‘first world’ refers to the countries involved in the industrial revolution and the capitalist route to modernity; and the ‘second world’ refers to the Soviet Block who took the socialist route to modernity. Harris (1986) claimed that the abandonment of the term was due to the increasing global integration and therefore the notion of distinct worlds were out of date.21 This theory is supported by the fact that some countries previously referred to as ‘third world’ are now economic rivals of th e ‘first world’, such as Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore. 22 However, again the statistics on deprivation, as shown above, conflict with this view. Global inequality is clearly not decreasing in all areas. The historical movement from traditional societies to modern ones and the part played by globalisation in speeding up the movement begun by the modernisation process is referred to as ‘Time-space distanciation’ by Giddens (1991) and ‘Time- Space Compression’ by David Harvey (1989). Traditional societies are said to be based upon social relations ’embedded’ in time and space. For example, time for a peasant, would be based upon the cyclical nature of the seasons due to their reliance on agriculture as a means of subsistence. This also meant that time to different societies were different, as their neighbours would use different measurements of time. The invention of the clock is significant to this as it allows one measure of time to be universalised and not narrow and locally defined. This can reduce the sense of social distance between communities. The sense of time is now global, as there is now only one concept of time in the world. Distances appear to have ‘shrunk’ as one community is using the same concept of time as one on the other side of the world.23. In this sense, it can be said that modernisation ‘dis-embeds’ the individual from their fixed identity in time and space. The two mechanisms Giddens (1991) claims are processes of ‘disembedding’ are symbolic tokens and expert systems. Money is used as an example of symbolic tokens as it was not used in traditional times; economic exchange was based upon local and particularistic expressions of value. With modernisation comes money as a universal form of exchange. Money, as time, acts to make general and universal what once were particularistic and local exchanges. As the current main form of exchange, money can make the world seem as one as it allows individuals to move between local contexts and can therefore establish social relations across time and space.24 As modernisation created the notion of a national currency which diminished difference within national boundaries, then globalisation removes differences between national currencies, for example, with the birth of the credit card. The credit card is accepted around the world making it easier to spend money worldwide. The introduction of the Euro in many European countries in January 2002 is another example. 25 Expert Systems are the result of scientific discoveries and technical knowledge which claim to be universal. They are not context dependent and therefore can establish social relations across time and space. An example of this is the current model of health care which is based on universal claims of science and dominates across the globe. Other models are ridiculed or labelled ‘alternative’, such as holistic therapies.26 A second ‘shrinking’ of the world occurred according to Harvey in 1847-8 with the economic collapse of credit. As a consequence of the collapse finance capitalists across Europe attempted to centralise capital and credit markets. Time was therefore further compressed as capital investments could move faster through the new rationalised system. The further conquest of space was made possible as investments are made in forms of transportation such as the railways and shipping. 27 This compression of space is given further impetus at the turn of the 20th century as investments are made in aviation and new media such as radio, photography and the cinema.28 According to Harvey the revolution in electronic technologies, such as computerisation and the Internet have meant that ‘time’ and ‘space’ has been conquered, as instantaneous communication is a reality.29 There are many sceptics to who all talk of the word becoming as one is simply talk. Whatever the benefits, trials and tribulations, the global economy is not especially different from that which existed at previous periods. The world is the same as it has been for many years. They use the example of external trade, saying that for most countries only a small part of income originates in external trade. Most economic exchange is regional, such as the countries in the European Union mostly trade amongst themselves. The same is said to be true of the other main trading blocks such as the Asia Pacific and North America.30 Sutcliffe (1995), for example, claims that global development is impossible since it would be economically unsustainable. He argues that development is going in the wrong direction, the underdeveloped countries would be better models for sustainable societies than the developed ones.31 Giddens (1999) criticises these views pointing out how globalisation sceptics are often on the old political left and they believe that globalisation is a notion proposed by those who wish to dismantle the welfare state and cut back on state spending. If the concept of globalisation is a myth then governments can still intervene in economic life and the welfar e states can remain intact. 32 Giddens (1999) argues that the global marketplace is much more developed than even two or three decades ago and national borders are no longer of importance. He claims that, â€Å"The era of the nation state is over†.33 Nations are said to have lost most of the sovereignty and politicians have lost the power to influence events. However, Turner (1994) demonstrates how a high degree of ‘economic globalisation’ occurred during the 17th Century.34 Other writers claim similar points saying that the world has reversed to how it was a century ago as in the late 19th Century there was a global open economy, with a great deal of trade occurring, including trade in currencies.35 Giddens (1999) criticises this saying that the level of world trade today is greater than it ever has been and involves a much wider range of goods and services, but the most important is the level of finance and capital flows. He uses the example of electronic money, money that only exists on computers. Money can be transferred around the world at simply a click of a mouse. Over a trillion dollars is said to be turned over everyday in global currency, a massive increase from ten years ago. The money an individual has personally depends on the fluctuations in the global currency markets. 36 Max Weber wrote on the nation state and maintained that the power to declare war or peace was one of the essential features of a state. If it doesn’t have a monopoly over was and peace, then it isn’t a state.37 Beck (2001) takes this up saying that the power to decide between war and peace is no longer a matter for an individual state acting autonomously and uses the example of the war against terrorism to demonstrate this.38 Developments in technology and communications are a factor in the debate. In the mid 19th Century Samuel Morse transmitted the first message by electric telegraph initiating a new phase in world history. Morse code was discontinued as a means of communications at sea on 1st February 1999. Now we have communications satellites, which were first launched just over 30 years ago and now there are over 200 satellites creating instantaneous communications across earth. Also other types of electronic communications have accelerated over the past years. No dedicated transatlantic or transpacific cables existed until the late 1950’s. These all play their part in making the world seem smaller and more accessible.39 The reach of media technologies also is a factor in making the world more ‘as one’. Celebrities may be more familiar to us than our next door neighbours. I could not tell you who my neighbours were; yet many people around the world would be able to say, for example, who Brad Pitt’s wife is. Giddens (1999) expresses how far the media has reached and how cultures have globalised by using an example of a friend of his who studied village life in central Africa. On her arrival in a remote area she was invited to a local home for an evening’s entertainment and instead of finding out the traditional pastimes of the community, they watched Basic Instinct on video, which hadn’t reached British cinemas at this point.40 The changing roles of women around the world and the changing structure of the family are also due to globalisation and making the world more similar. For example, Cherie Blair has recently launched a campaign to help the women of Afghanistan, as by our standards they have no rights. Ulrich Beck (1992) writes about ‘reflexive modernisation’ and in an article published online for the New Statesman he writes about how this is bringing the world together. ‘Reflexive modernisation’ is a description of contemporary society in which we become aware of the risks and dangers of industrial technological society and in which increased knowledge about how to deal with this creates more awareness of dangers and risks.41 He applies this to the recent terrorist attacks to show how, â€Å"†¦ The warring camps and nations of the world united against the common foe of global terrorism.†42 Old rivalries of the US, such as with Moscow and Beijing are forgotten and a real cease-fire between Israel and the Palestinians is enforced. He pontificates that humanities common fear is now making new bonds and dissolving t he boundaries of national and international politics creating the globalisation of politics in which states are moulded into transnational co-operative networks. He also shows how foreign and domestic policy, national security and international co-operation are now interlocked. Since 11th September, ‘terrorist sleepers’ have been identified in Hamburg, Germany, and many other places. Therefore German domestic policy is now an important part of US domestic and foreign policy. So are the domestic foreign, security and defence policies of France Pakistan, Great Britain, Russia and so on.43 There are very many arguments suggesting that the world is becoming as one. Other arguments I have not gone into are the growing awareness of the global environment and the ways people all over the world are trying to help, such as with the South American rainforest and the widespread starvation of Africa. Global tourism is also making us more aware of our world and the ease of travel to far away places makes the world seem as if it is smaller than when the first voyage of discovery crossed the Atlantic Ocean. The spread of the English language around the world and the films and television programmes seen by hundreds of millions of people in different countries also contribute. The world is also better connected both economically and politically with global financial markets and the World Trade Organisation, also the creation of international political communities such as the European Union and the United Nations make the world more integrated. However, we will not live in ‘one world’ until the problems of inequality between rich and poor are solved. Also until many aspects of difference are recognised and accepted, especially regarding religious difference as this is still a major cause of disagreement in the world today. Bibliography * Beck, U. (1992), â€Å"Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity†, London, Sage * Beck, U. (5/11/01) â€Å"The Fight for a Cosmopolitan Future†, The New Statesman Online, ( News&Title=SociologyOnline+Link&FooterLocation=2&FooterFontFace=Verdana&FooterFontSize=3&ShowRemoverFrame=1&Link= 20/11/01 * Fitzgerald, T., 20/11/01 * Giddens, A., (1990), â€Å"The Consequences of Modernity†, Cambridge, Polity. * Giddens, A., (1991), â€Å"Modernity & self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age†, Cambridge, Polity. * Giddens, A., (1994), â€Å"Beyond Left & Right: The Future of Radical Politics†, Cambridge, Polity * Giddens, A ., (1999), â€Å"Runaway World: How Globalisation Is Reshaping Our Lives†, Profile Books. * Giddens A., (1999) â€Å"Runaway World†, Lecture 1: â€Å"Globalisation†, London, BBC Reith Lectures, 20/11/01 * Gilroy, P (1993), â€Å"The Black Atlantic: Modernity & Double Consciousness†, London, Verso. * Harris, N., (1986), â€Å"The End of the Third World: Newly Industrialising Countries and the Decline of an Ideology†, Harmondsworth, Penguin. * Harvey, D. (1989) â€Å"The Condition of Postmodernity†, Oxford, Basil Blackwell. * Parsons, T., (1966) â€Å"Societies: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives†, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall. * Robertson, R., (1992)†Globalisation: Social Theory and Global Culture†, London, Sage. * Rostow, W., (1971) â€Å"Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto†, Cambridge University Press. * S utcliffe. B., (1995), â€Å"Development After Ecology†, in Timmon Roberts, J., and Hite, A. (eds.) (2000), â€Å"From Modernisation to Globalisation: Perspectives on Development and Social Change†, Oxford, Blackwell * Turner, B.S. (1994) â€Å"Orientalism, Postmodernism & Globalism†, London, Routledge * Weber, M., (1919), â€Å"Politics as a Vocation†, in â€Å"From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology†, ed. Gerth, H.H. and Mills, C.W. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1948 * 20/11/01 1 Harris, N., (1986), â€Å"The End of the Third World: Newly Industrialising Countries and the Decline of an Ideology†, Harmondsworth, Penguin. 2 Turner, B.S. (1994) â€Å"Orientalism, Postmodernism & Globalism†, London, Routledge. 3 Parsons, T., (1966) â€Å"Societies: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives†, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall. 4 Rostow, W., (1971) â€Å"Stages of Economic Grow th: A Non-Communist Manifesto†, Cambridge University Press. 5 Giddens, A., (1990), â€Å"The Consequences of Modernity†, Cambridge, Polity. 6 Giddens, A., (1991), â€Å"Modernity & Self Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age†, Cambridge, Polity. 7 ibid. 8 Giddens A., (1999), â€Å"Runaway World†, Lecture 1: â€Å"Globalisation†, London, BBC Reith Lectures, 20/11/01 9 Robertson, R., â€Å"Globalisation: Social Theory and Global Culture†, London, Sage. 10 Giddens, A., (1991), â€Å"Modernity & Self Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age†, Cambridge, Polity 11 Giddens, A., (1994), â€Å"Beyond Left & Right: The Future of Radical Politics†, Cambridge, Polity 12 Giddens, A., (1999), â€Å"Runaway World: How Globalisation Is Reshaping Our Lives†, Profile Books. 13 Giddens, A., (1994), â€Å"Beyond Left & Right: The Future of Radical P olitics†, Cambridge, Polity 14 ibid. 15 ibid. 16 ibid. 17 Gilroy, P (1993), â€Å"The Black Atlantic: Modernity & Double Consciousness†, London, Verso. 18 Fitzgerald, T., 20/11/01 19 Giddens A., (1999), â€Å"Runaway World†, Lecture 1: â€Å"Globalisation†, London, BBC Reith Lectures, 20/11/01 20 20/11/01 21 Harris, N., (1986), â€Å"The End of the Third World: Newly Industrialising Countries and the Decline of an Ideology†, Harmondsworth, Penguin. 22 Fulcher, J. and Scott, J. (1999), â€Å"Sociology†, Oxford, Oxford University Press. 23 Giddens, A., (1991), â€Å"Modernity & Self Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age†, Cambridge, Polity 24 ibid. 25 ibid. 26 ibid. 27 Harvey, D. (1989) â€Å"The Condition of Postmodernity†, Oxford, Basil Blackwell 28 ibid. 29 ibid. 30 Giddens A., (1999), â€Å"Runaway World†, Lecture 1: â€Å"Globalisation†, London, BBC Reith Lectures, 20/11/01 31 Sutcliffe. B., (1995), â€Å"Development After Ecology†, in Timmon Roberts, J., and Hite, A. (eds.) (2000), â€Å"From Modernisation to Globalisation: Perspectives on Development and Social Change†, Oxford, Blackwell. 32 Giddens A., (1999), â€Å"Runaway World†, Lecture 1: â€Å"Globalisation†, London, BBC Reith Lectures, 20/11/01 33 ibid. 34 Turner, B.S. (1994) â€Å"Orientalism, Postmodernism & Globalism†, London, Routledge. 35 Giddens A., (1999), â€Å"Runaway World†, Lecture 1: â€Å"Globalisation†, London, BBC Reith Lectures, 20/11/01 36 ibid. 37 Weber, M., (1919), â€Å"P olitics as a Vocation†, in â€Å"From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology†, ed. H.H. Gerth and C.W. Mills, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1948 38 Beck, U. (5/11/01) â€Å"The Fight for a Cosmopolitan Future†, The New Statesman Online News&Title=SociologyOnline+Link&FooterLocation=2&FooterFontFace=Verdana&FooterFontSize=3&ShowRemoverFrame=1&Link= 39 Giddens A., (1999), â€Å"Runaway World†, Lecture 1: â€Å"Globalisation†, London, BBC Reith Lectures, 20/11/01 40 ibid. 41 Beck, U. (1992), â€Å"Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity†, London, Sage. 42 Beck, U. (5/11/01) â€Å"The Fight for a Cosmopolit an Future† in The New Statesman Online.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Leadership and Management Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Leadership and Management Development - Essay Example It is done in order to amplify the inner skills and confidence of the employees towards the assigned tasks that may improve their level of performance. By doing so, the level of productivity and profitability of the organization might get enhanced to a significant extent that may augment its position and ranking in the market among others. However, in order to maintain the operation of the organization in an efficient way, the leader needs to maintain good interpersonal relationship with its employees. By communicating with them, in terms of various issues, the level of participation might get enhanced that may improve the performance of the organization as a whole. Thus, it might be clearly the better the qualities of a leader the better might be the performance of an organization (Ulrich, 1997, pp. 223-234). According to Northouse (2010), leadership is an art or skill that is attained by the individual through vigorous communication and interactions with a wide range of individual or employees. By doing so, varied types of ideas and suggestions are presented in front of wide range of individual, who might also participate in the decision-making process. As a result, the level of confidence and thinking power of the individual also gets enhanced to a significant extent as compared to others. Moreover, due to strategic thinking process, the creativity and innovativeness of the leader to present varied types of ideas related to improvement of the organizational performance and position in the market might get amplified (Northhouse, 2010, pp. 110-123). In addition to this, through coaching and development learning programs, the self assessment and team-building skills of the individual might get enhanced. Such type of skills might also amplify the problem solving nature of the individual that may reduce the conflicts and clashes among the employees. By doing so, the level

Coursework Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Coursework - Case Study Example As already mentioned, the business will serve organizations interested in optimizing their web rankings. It services will cover an extensive range of activities including on-site and off-site SEO services. During the first year of operations, focus will be on marketing aimed at building a strong client base. Other than conventional market practices, quality services to existing clients will form the basis of our services marketing initiative. The business will then expand to attain regional status and eventually global over time. During the first three years, the business will direct lots of resources towards marketing. A large portion of the content will be done in-house during these 3 years. This will however not be a problem considering that the stakeholders are experts in the field of the business. It major source of revenues will be offering of SEO services to website owners. However, it will also earn some revenues through advertisements and affiliate programs. The will officially be launched on the 16th of august with an initial capital investment of  £100,000. The projected sales revenue for the first 3 years will be  £10000,  £30000 EUR, and  £50000 in year 1, year 2 and year 3 respectively. These will however be discussed in detail in the financial section of the business plan. As already mentioned, XYZ Solutions will provide website owners with high impact e-marketing strategies. These services are meant to help organizations increase their web presence and reach out to more of their target audience. XYZ Solutions does not just attract traffic to the respective websites but rather attracts the right traffic with a potential of turning them into sales where sales is the prime objective of a site. The services are purely aimed at having client’s websites ranked high on search engines based on specific keywords. The organization applies both conventional and technical skills to

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Muscular Distrophy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Muscular Distrophy - Essay Example The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) has defined muscular dystrophies (MD) as â€Å"a group of more than 30 genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement. Some forms of MD are seen in infancy or childhood, while others may not appear until middle age or later. The disorders differ in terms of the distribution and extent of muscle weakness (some forms of MD also affect cardiac muscle), age of onset, rate of progression, and pattern of inheritance† (NINDS, 2010, par. 3). There are various types with corresponding clinical manifestations and therapy for MDs. In this regard, the essay aims to compare and contrast, one particular type, the Duchenne MD with another type, the Facioscapulohumeral MD. The causes, pathology and treatment would be discussed and evaluated in light of the two identified MDs. The Duchenne MD is considered the most common form of MD afflicting children, identified to occur in 1 out of 3,500 live male births (London, 2007, 1791). This type of MD, likewise known as pseudohyperthophy â€Å"refers to enlargement of muscles as a result of their infiltration with fatty tissue† (London, 2007, 1791). The disorder usually appears within the first three to four years of the child’s development. In a research conducted by Bogdanovich, (2005), the authors averred that â€Å"DMD is characterized by progressive and severe muscle loss that leads to loss of ambulation, with those affected often becoming wheelchair dependent toward the end of the first decade of life. The disease is caused by mutations in the DMD gene resulting in quantitative and/or qualitative disturbances in expression of the gene product, dystrophin† (par. 1). The symptoms for Duchenne MD include any or a combination of the following: â€Å"fatigue, mental retardation (possible, but does not worsen over time), muscle weakness, and

Monday, August 26, 2019

Discuss Lawlers theories of New Pay Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Discuss Lawlers theories of New Pay - Essay Example The problem with current structure of pay is that it brings insecurity among employees regarding their pay and benefits. With current pay system linked to job grades rather than employee’s performance, It makes it hard for employees to make extra effort for organization’s performance. (Heery, 1996) The new pay theories have become popular in the last decade as academics have been criticizing the old pay systems due to many reasons. It is often argued that the old pay system is not directly related to organization performance and employees feel they are not being acknowledged for their contribution in organization’s performance. (Heneman, 2000) Schuster and Zinghiem criticized the old system and represented the approach of new pay. Their argument was that by linking the pay and rewards to organization strategy and performance will bring benefits. The new pay system will be strategic, business aligned, and performance driven.(Schuster and Zingheim, 1996) The reasons for emphasising this pay system are quite clear; the pay system needs to be aligned with organization strategy and needs rather than a standard bureaucratic system that has been followed for decades. Schuster and Zinghiem extensive research is the force behind the idea of making pay a positive tool for achievi ng excellence in organizations. Although the new theory is well received and appreciated in academia, it is far from implementation in the industry. New pay system is likely to bring discrimination among the employees as people will be paid rather than the job. Another issue could be legal responsibilities that an organization has for its employees. (Sturman and Short, 2006) Case Study: An extensive research into the banking sector regarding new pay system brought out some issues. The research was carried within Finbank reward strategy for managers. The idea behind the research was to align the rewards system with the

Sunday, August 25, 2019

How significant are trade unions in Britain today Essay

How significant are trade unions in Britain today - Essay Example In Britain, trade unions have been instrumental in promoting cooperation between management and workers throughout the history. However, the situation does not seem as favourable in today’s working environment. The paper examines the significance of trade unions in today’s Britain and concludes that trade unions have lost their influence in modern workplace due to increasing employer concern and direct voice of employees. With the closure of twentieth century, trade unions have to experience the challenge to deal with the issues which were considered to be resolved. Today’s trade unions are not as influential as they were in past. The period 1945-75 was exceptional because of the high tide of union power. However, unions represent significant and influential interest and the nature of their role and process of change is intensively debated (Mcllroy, 1995, p.385). Approximately 13.3 million people were members of trade unions in 1979; it is the highest level ever reached in Britain for union density at 55.4 percent. Impact of industry level bargaining and wage councils refer to 85 percent of working population catered by collective pay-setting process (cited in Howell, 2005, p.131).Furthermore, with the end of 2001,union membership level declines by 40 percent to 7.6 million, union density reached the lower level of 30 percent of workforce (cited in Howell, 2005, p.131). From 1980s to 1990s, there is a distinct diversion from closed shop to simple recognition (Fernie, 2005, p.5).In a statistical analysis, Millward et al. (2000, cited in Fernie, 2005, p.5) inferred that major reasons of decline in union density in unionised workplace were decline in closed shop and membership endorsement from management during 1984 and 1990.However, situation appeared to be different during 1990 to 1998 when employees appeared to have lost their interest in unionism(Fernie, 2005, p.5). Today, 1970’s steep decline in union membership seemed to be halted ; however, decline in collective bargaining has experienced their conventional impact in the workplace wane. Most unions are as concerned about upholding and reinforcing individual legal rights of their members as for the development of collectively bargained rights. Comparatively less discussed but just as crucial is the relative decline in the membership of different employer’s organizations (Donaghy, cited in Taylor, 2002, p.5). Considerable revival in union membership at the point of late 1970s when 58 percent of workers were union members appeared to be improbable. De-industrialization has stripped the earlier bastions of trade union power in textile, coal, steel, iron, engineering and shipping. Central driver for dramatic union growth during 1960s and 1970s, the public service sector, is not anticipated to flourish like past. With the termination of broader bargaining agreements, more personalized forms of wage negotiations at enterprise level countermined the role of t rade unions and ceased them to perform their conventional role of collective negotiators. Furthermore, trade unions are not benefitting by their role as collaborator in the management of political economy (Taylor, 2002, p.6). Today, their role outside the workplace is less enunciated and more challenged as compared to the initial times after Second World War. Illegalizing closed

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Boutique Law Firm and Title Company in Hohenwald Tennessee Research Paper

Boutique Law Firm and Title Company in Hohenwald Tennessee - Research Paper Example James Mark has a passion for the law and is comfortable with the real estate aspects of it. Specifically title searches, which forms the genealogy of land ownership. As a starting company, Syndicate Law firm will forecast its revenue. Revenue forecast is the amount of money calculated that Syndicate firm expects to receive from its sales. It is almost impossible to predict the yearly revenues of Syndicate Company precisely. It is critically crucial for Syndicate to develop a revenue budget of high quality. Managers of Syndicate will spend their time to assess the condition of the market, conduct analysis and negotiate with superiors to set the revenue expectations. This is possible for the company by setting aggressive but achievable targets. Therefore, revenue forecast plays a crucial in the present economies. It helps Syndicate understand how programs of the company affect the levels of domestic income. It also offers insight into the company’s economic health in the long-te rm and short-term (â€Å"Idaho real estate: practice & law†, 2002). Consequently, revenue forecast is crucial because it enables the managers of Syndicate to re-adjust the company’s annual budget. Adjustments are based on the company’s cash inflow’s estimate and keep off a large deficit of the budget. Syndicate budget team typically performs the procedures of revenue forecast at the end of a financial year. Consequently, the activities of revenue forecast affect the social expenditure and investment of infrastructure that Syndicate Company can develop over a financial year. For instance, when the estimates of revenue decrease, it causes the managers of Syndicate to reduce some of the social programs or even raise sales. Success The Syndicate Law firm will achieve its success by setting goals. Setting goals is part of the Syndicate’s planning process. The managers establish financial and non-financial goals for longer and shorter term. When Syndicat e Law firm has goals in place, it will help the management team to focus on the operational steps it needs to take and the resources needed to meet the target. When Syndicate Company meets non-financial goals, the possibility of meeting the financial target such as profitability and revenues becomes possible. Some of the non-financial goals include customer satisfaction, planning and reporting systems, employee and training development, policies and procedures, long-range vision, and community involvement. On the other hand, some of the financial goals that Syndicate Company needs to achieve include revenue and profitability. The major success of Syndicate Company is to keep their clients satisfied. This offers the chance for repeat business. When a customer is satisfied, they are likely to tell their associates about their experience. Therefore, if Syndicate Company sells to other companies, the endorsement from clients is crucial to close a sale with a new client. Also, the manage rs will create business plans for the company to table to perspective investors, which serve the company as a guide. When Syndicate grows, their planning process also grows. The growth includes the regular gathering of information on competitive activities and comparing the actual outcomes to forecast figures on a quarterly basis. Another success of the Syndicate Law Firm is its revenue growth and its expansion. Revenue growth and expansion creates

Friday, August 23, 2019

Global Financial Crisis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Global Financial Crisis - Essay Example Investments Banks in United States received a huge blow of the financial crisis for which they gradually disappeared from the financial scenario of the country (Kenc & Dibooglu, 2010, p. 3). The crisis of the mortgage market during 2007 rendered a huge impact on countering a decline in the value of the market price of large securities and other financial instruments held by the financial organizations of the world. Credit Crunch which happened in the American markets created a global turmoil by declining the value of debt instruments all over the world by restricting credit both on personalized and on organized levels. Thus the contagious effect of the financial credit crunch of America took the form of global financial crisis by ripping off the stability of the financial institutions on an international scale (Longstaff, 2010, p.436; Aronson, 2010, p. 276). Reasons for the Global Financial Crisis The main reason which is attributed to causing the event of global financial crisis in the global scenario is the effect of contagion. Contagion effect has been identified to generate similar shocks of financial breakdown in one economic system to other financial systems operating throughout the world mainly through three ways. In the first manner the potency of economic breakdown in one financial market is spread to other world economies through the information network. This information obtained can hugely affect the working of the economic system of the other countries largely jeopardizing them. Secondly the event of contagion also gains ground by disturbing the liquidity position of the financial assets of the other global economies. A strike imposed on the availability of financial liquidity through the system of credit in one economy also renders potential impact by curbing the amount of liquidity in other economies of the world. In the third case the contagious effect of the financial crisis in any developed region like America also weakens the desire and potenc y of other economies to enhance the risk portfolio in their financial system (Longstaff, 2010, p.438). Along with the above reasons there were several other causes like the selfish outlook of the micro factors of the financial system like the groups of investors, creditors, banks and other financial institutions. These economic groups were busy considering avenues to get the best of the financial system by drifting the financial and economic policies of the government in their favor. The impacts rendered by these systems led to the growth of credit generation in the economy of United States until it led to the final demise. Further the social policy outlines taken by the government of United States to help render huge credits to the poor people of the country to construct houses also led to the happening of the credit crunch. Huge amount of credit ushered in the economy with low amount of interest also led the banks to gain the advantage of such. The financial system of granting cre dit in America was managed by different agencies that used to set policies and regulations detrimental to the economic system of the country. These agencies were themselves not successful in rightly satisfying the responsibilities entrusted on them and mainly wanted to avail the favor of the intricacies of the government regulations pertaining to credit (Wignall & Atkinson, 2009, pp. 2, 5, 8; McNally, 2009, p. 36, 38). The opening up of the economic s

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Hear My Cry Essay Example for Free

Hear My Cry Essay Stacey feels responsible for his younger brothers and sister and feels the need to protect them: Stacey glowered at T. J. a moment longer, then walked swiftly to Little Man and put his long arm around his shoulders saying softly, Come on, Man. It aint gonna happen no more, least not for a long while. I promise you that. Stacey is not only loyal to his family but also loyal to his friends. When he is faced with the decision to either be truthful to his mother or face a punishment as a result of being loyal to T. J. he chooses loyalty and therefore suffers the consequences. The society the children live in forces them to mature much more rapidly than in our society. Stacey is very mature and he is well aware of the differences between right and wrong: Despite any effort to persuade Stacey otherwise, when Mama came home he confessed that he had been fighting T. J. at the Wallace store and that Mr Morrison had stopped it. He stood awkwardly before her, disclosing only those things he could honourably mention. T. J. is Staceys best friend. He is very self-centred and is loyal to no one except himself. He seems to have no conscience and is very sly: At first T. J.wouldnt do it, but then he seen Miz Logan startin toward em and he slipped Stacey the notes Jeremy is an exception to the rule. He is a white boy but he disobeys his parents and continues to socialise with the black children. This even surprises the Logan children: It was only then that I realized that Jeremy never rode the bus, no matter how bad the weather. To help us visualise the setting of the novel Mildred D. Taylor uses occasional light, evocative description. She uses just enough for us to understand the image she is trying to portray without using too much which could cause us to loose interest. These short paragraphs of description are very effective, as she does not tell us directly what the scene is like but through similes and metaphors: Before us the narrow, sun-splotched road wound like a lazy red serpent dividing the high forest bank of quiet, old trees on the left from the cotton field, forested by giant green and purple stalks, on the right. The Difference between the Great Faith school for black students and the Jefferson Davis school for white students is acute. The Great Faith Elementary and Secondary School was a dismal end to an hours journey. Consisting of four weather beaten wooden houses on stilts of brick, 320 students, 7 teachers, a principal, a caretaker, and the caretakers cow, which kept the wide crab grass lawn sufficiently clipped in Spring and Summer. Jefferson Davis County School, a long white wooden building looming in the distance. Behind the building was a wide sports field around which were scattered rows of tiered gray-looking benches. The Jefferson Davis School for White Students gives an image of wealth and prosperity in comparison to the Great Faith school for Black students. The Logan Household is warm and inviting. The features shown in the house show that the Logan family were very skilful people. They seem to be a lot wealthier than other black people at this time: The furniture, a mixture of Logan-crafted walnut and oak, included a walnut bed whose ornate headboard rose halfway up the wall to meet the high ceiling The theme of this novel is racism and discrimination towards the black people at this time. There are many occasions in the first four chapters alone which express this racism. The most white people feel they are superior to black people in every way. They feel that if a black person steps out of line by doing the slightest thing they have the right to punish or even murder them. They seem to have no hesitation about taking the life of a black person as they feel black people are there to be taken advantage of Something as simple as saying something offensive to a white man: Mr Barnette says, you callin me a liar, boy? And Mr Tatum says, Yessuh, I guess I is! Could end up with a black man being severely punished by a gang of white night men: Tarred and feathered him! T. J. announced hastily. Poured the blackest tar they could find all over him,and plastered him with chicken feathers. The children cannot understand why the white and blacks are separated; however they are forced to understand as a matter of life and death. They are robbed of their childhood innocence long before they should be due to the dangers they would face if they stepped out of line. The author is also trying to put across the message that because of the discrimination towards the black people they live in extreme poverty. The Logans are better off than most black families as they own land, however they need money so badly that the father is forced to work away from home on the railroads for money. The schools are given books for the first time however, they are not the long awaited books they were hoping for, but torn worthless books which were no use to them. In concluding, Mildred D. Taylor has successfully portrayed the hardships the black population of the southern states of America, had to endure in the early 1930s. In the first four introductory chapters, she set the scene using descriptive tactics. She introduced us to most of the main characters and told us a bit about their physical appearance and their personality. And she most importantly explained to us the difficulties the Logan family and generally, all black families faced, due to their race and how unfair society was towards them. We learn how white people took the law onto themselves, carrying out vindictive murders at the drop of the hat. Even in the first four chapters, Mildred D. Taylor has evoked sympathy for the black people. By Emma-Jane Reilly 11E Mr Devlin! Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Mildred Taylor section.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Entrepreneurship Essay Example for Free

Entrepreneurship Essay The public perception of entrepreneurs today is almost legendary. They seem to seamlessly start up small businesses and make them grow and develop themselves almost overnight to big successes. (Beaver, 2005) This essay will briefly cover the differences and similarities between managers, business owners and entrepreneurs. Differences and similarities between managers, owners and entrepreneurs Back in the 19th century being a businessman, in other words being an owner-manager, was not regarded a profession. These people were coordinators, arbitrators, innovators, interpreters of the market and risk-takers at the same time. The purpose of their activity ranged from interest from capital to profits for bearing the risk of operation. (Zaratiegui Rabade, 2005) However they required ownership of over 50 per cent of the shared capital to have control over the business. (Burns, 2007) From that early stage the traditional management as mentioned first in Henri Fayol’s General and Industrial Management in 1949 (in French, 1916) evolved which dominates our public perception still today. Here we notice a distinct separation between the owner, or the proprietor, of a business and the people those owners hire to get their business managed and administrated. (Fraja, 1996) Those managers are required to have certain capabilities, i.e. leading people and administrating operations, finance and resources. They are the ultimate authority in the organization and therefore responsible for the social, legal, environmental and ethical aspects of the company. An entrepreneur is not exactly the latest form of performing business activities as Joseph A. Schumpeter identified entrepreneurial entities already in 19341, however, the term got increasingly popular by the end of the 20th century. People like Steve Jobs, Sir Richard Branson or Mark Zuckerberg are just some of many famous entrepreneurs. The Oxford English Dictionary defines an entrepreneur as â€Å"a person who attempts to profit by risk and initiative†. Therefore Gartner, et al. (1992) suggest that an entrepreneur is both a manager and an owner, with a willingness to accept risk, uncertainty and an eagerness to exploit change and profit from market niches. What is even more striking is that entrepreneurs have a certain 1 â€Å"A person, ‘a contractor’ who coordinates, organizes and supervises (posses managerial skills) an enterprise with exceptional moral qualities, perseverance, and knowledge of the world and society’s needs.†- Schumpeter, 1934 Similarities and differences between a manager, a business owner and an entrepreneur By Henry Amm set of skills that is superior to that of a manger in terms of productivity and profitability. Typical entrepreneurial capabilities comprise features such as investigating opportunities, believing in innovation, and strategic planning upon the latest developments on the market. (Piperopoulos, 2011) Any manager can behave in a more entrepreneurial way, if he or she is aware of the individual effectiveness. This can ray out more confidence towards customers, investors or subordinates and therefore increase productivity and profitability. (Piperopoulos, 2011) Research has shown that entrepreneurs and managers might have different goals and working styles. (Stewart, et al., 1999) But even though everyone has different working preferences, the literature suggests that being an entrepreneur can be learned, especially regarding the way entrepreneurs work on tasks and complete them. What the typical manager can copy from an entrepreneur is his personal organization and interpersonal interaction. (Piperopoulos, 2011) Burns (2007) notes that owner-managers, entrepreneurs and managers can be distinguished by their character traits and the type of business they run. An owner-manager typically has a high need for independence and achievement and an ability to live with uncertainty and measured risks. Therefore he often runs a lifestyle firm that is based on trade or craft which, however, will not grow to any considerable size. The entrepreneur in turn is opportunistic, innovative, self-confident and acts proactive and decisive. He is highly self-motivated by his vision and is therefore willing to take even greater risks and can live with a high uncertainty. That is why the entrepreneur has a growth firm and is pursuing growth and personal wealth. Lastly the manager is administrating, or in other words managing, an entity that does not belong to him. His ‘purpose’ is to build up the organisation, by means that are similar to larger firms. (Burns, 2007) However there are some exceptions from that generalization: An owner-manager of course can have a growing business, while an entrepreneur could manage a business he owns together with a business associate and therefore has not complete control over the capital. (Burns, 2007) As Fraja (1996) suggests every firm can be assigned to either one of the following types: Either it is an entrepreneurial firm, where the owner-manager or entrepreneur is in exclusive control, organizes production, borrows funds and retains any residual returns from his work. Or it is a managerial firm, where the individual that has the right to residual returns remains outside the company and the individual that has the right of control is hired from the owner. Similarities and differences between a manager, a business owner and an entrepreneur By Henry Amm Modern approaches like ‘corporate entrepreneurship’ try to overcome those boundaries by incorporating advantages of entrepreneurship into common management. Companies try to facilitate diversification with internal development workshops. That makes activities necessary, in areas that are usually only loosely related to the current ‘domain’ of competence of the company. That is to engage innovation like you have it with a start-up company, but within an established organization. (Burgelmann, 1983) Conclusion Exceptions prove the rule; mangers, owners and entrepreneurs can be distinguished not only by their character traits but they are also more likely to lead an organization that is typical for their respective role. Modern organizations try to incorporate selected features of entrepreneurship to be more competitive. It seems like those terms still are about to change, or maybe always will need adaption to our contemporary view onto management, ownership and entrepreneurship.

Youth Mental Health Issues Facing Australians Essay

Youth Mental Health Issues Facing Australians Essay Introduction: the problem Mental and substance use disorders are among the most important health issues facing Australians. They are a key health issue for young people in their teenage years and early 20s and, if these disorders persist, the constraints, distress and disability they cause can last for decades (McGorry et al., 2007). Associated with mental disorders among youth are high rates of enduring disability, including school failure, impaired or unstable employment, and poor family and social functioning. These problems lead to spirals of dysfunction and disadvantage that are difficult to reverse. (McGorry et al., 2007). As over 75% of mental disorders commence before the age of 25 years, reducing the economic, geographical, attitudinal and service organisation barriers for adolescents and young adults is an essential first step in addressing mental health problems (Hickie and McGorry, 2007). In Australia, rates of mental illness among young people is higher than for any other population group and represented the major burden of disease for young people with depression making the greatest contribution to this burden. In addition, youth suicide and self-harm have both steadily increased during the 1990s (Williams et al., 2005). 60% of all health-related disability costs in 1534-year-olds are attributable to mental health problems, and of the total disability years lived in Australia, 27% is attributable to mental disorders. Although most common mental disorders commence before 18 years of age, people aged 2544 years and 4564 years are more than twice as likely as those aged under 25 years to receive an active treatment when seen in general practice (Hickie et al., 2005). Research has indicated that some mental health problems can be prevented through appropriate early intervention, and that the impact of existing mental illness can be mitigated through the early provision of appropriate services (Mental Health Policy and Planning Unit, ACT, 2006). It has been estimated that up to 60% of cases of alcohol or other substance misuse could be prevented by earlier treatment of common mental health problems (Hickie et al., 2005). Despite the enthusiastic efforts of many clinicians around Australia, progress in service reform has plateaued, remains piecemeal and is frustratingly slow in contrast to what has been achieved in other countries, many of which began by emulating Australia. In addition, the specialist mental health system is seriously under-funded (McGorry and Yung, 2003). While Australias national health spending continues to grow past $72 billion the total recurrent mental health spending has consistently remained below 7% of this figure (Hickie et al., 2005). The need for coordinated national health and welfare services for people with mental health and substance misuse problems has been recognised by all Australian governments, but insufficient investment, lack of accountability, divided systems of government and changing health care demands resulted in a very patchy set of reforms (Hickie and McGorry, 2007; Vimpani, 2005). Statistics regarding the problem Close to one in five people in Australia were affected by a mental health problem within a 12-month period, according to the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Young adults were particularly affected, with more than one-quarter of Australians aged 18 to 24 years suffering from at least one mental disorder over a 12-month period (Mental Health Policy and Planning Unit, ACT, 2006). In Australia, the prevalence of mental health problems among children aged 412 years lies between 7% and 14%, rises to 19% among adolescents aged 1317 years, and increases again to 27% among young adults aged 1824. Therefore, up to one in four young people in Australia are likely to be suffering from a mental health problem, with substance misuse or dependency, depression or anxiety disorder, or some combination of these the most common issues (McGorry et al., 2007). It is therefore more likely that mental health problems will develop between the ages of 12 and 26 than in any other stage of life (Orygen Youth Health, 2009). This situation also exists among Australian Indigenous communities, where the continuing grief and trauma resulting from the loss of traditional lands and cultural practices as a result of colonization, past policies of child removal and the destruction of traditional governance arrangements within Aboriginal communities, are an ever-present cultural reality that plays out in some of the worst developmental health and well-being outcomes in advanced industrial society (Vimpani, 2005). Risk taking by young people Studies show that psychosocial issues form a great burden of disease for young people, including intentional and unintentional injuries, mental disorders, tobacco, alcohol and other substance misuse, and unprotected sexual intercourse (Tylee et al., 2007). The pathways to substance misuse in young people involve complex interplay between individual biological and psychological vulnerability, familial factors and broader societal influences. The impact on family and society is often painful, destructive and expensive (Vimpani, 2005). In 2005, nearly half of all deaths of young men and a third of young women aged 1534 years in NSW were due to suicide, transport accidents or accidental drug overdoses (418 persons; ABS, 2008b). In 2007, amongst young men in the age group 15-24 in NSW, the average age for first consumption of alcohol was around 15, and amongst women of the same age group, the average age for first use of alcohol was around 17 years. In addition to its potential direct health consequences, risky or high risk drinking can increase the likelihood of a person falling, or being involved in an accident or violence (ABS, 2008a). 71% of persons aged 14-19 and 89.4% of persons aged 20-29 were current drinkers. 27.6% of persons aged 14-19 (40.5% at the age of 20-29) were at risk of short term harm, while 10% (14.7% at the age of 20-29) were at risk of long term harm. Around 90% of Australian youth (aged 1824 years) have drinking patterns that place them at high risk of acute harm (Lubmen et al., 2007). On aver age, 25 percent of hospitalisations of 15-24 year olds occur as a result of alcohol consumption (Prime Minister of Australia, 2008). Almost one-quarter (23%) of people aged 1524 years in Australia reported using illicit drugs during the last 12 months, around twice as high as the proportion of people aged 25 years and over (11%). Marijuana/cannabis was the most common drug used by 1524 year olds (18%), followed by ecstasy (9%), and meth/amphetamines and pharmaceuticals (both 4%). Barriers to provision and use of health services Primary-care health services are sometimes still not available. They may be inaccessible for a variety of reasons such as cost, lack of convenience or lack of publicity and visibility. Health services might not be acceptable to young people, however, even if available and accessible. Fear about lack of confidentiality (particularly from parents) is a major reason for young peoples reluctance to seek help, as well as possible stigma, fear of difficult questions. In addition, health professionals might not be trained in communicating with young people. If and when young people seek help, some may be unhappy with the consultation and determine not to go back. To ensure prevention and early intervention efforts, clinicians and public-health workers are increasingly recognising the pressing need to overcome the many barriers that hinder the provision and use of health services by young people, and to transform the negative image of health facilities to one of welcoming user-friendly setti ngs (Tylee et al., 2007). Spending in the area remains poor, and service access and tenure are actively withheld in most specialist mental health and substance misuse service systems until high levels of risk or danger are reached, or severe illness, sustained disability and chronicity are entrenched. Thus, just when mental health services are most needed by young people and their families, they are often inaccessible or unacceptable in design, style and quality. Moreover, numerous young people with distressing and disabling mental health difficulties struggle to find age-appropriate assistance. Young people with moderately severe non-psychotic disorders (eg, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders), and those with comorbid substance use and mental health issues, are particularly vulnerable. For many of these young people, if they survive (and many do not), their difficulties eventually become chronic and disabling (McGorry et al., 2007). Another barrier is related to the manners in which young people seek help when they have a mental problem. The most recent national survey data for Australia show that only 29% of children and adolescents with a mental health problem had been in contact with a professional service of any type in a 12-month period. Some subgroups, such as young males, young Indigenous Australians and migrants may be even less likely to voluntarily seek professional help when needed. If young people want to talk to anyone, it is generally someone they know and trust and when they do seek professional help, it is from the more familiar sources family doctors and school-based counsellors. However, many young people at high risk of mental health problems do not have links to work, school, or even a family doctor (Rickwood, Deane and Wilson, 2007). Furthermore, mental disorders are not well recognized by the public. The initial Australian survey of mental health literacy showed that many people cannot give the correct psychiatric label to a disorder portrayed in a depression or schizophrenia vignette. There is also a gap in beliefs about treatment between the public and mental-health professionals: the biggest gap is in beliefs about medication for both depression and schizophrenia, and admission to a psychiatric ward for schizophrenia (Jorm et al., 2006). Existing resources: Knowledge, policy and programs Existing knowledge: Manners of interventions Prevention and early intervention programs are normally classified into four types: universal programs are presented to all regardless of symptoms; selective programs target children and adolescents who are at risk of developing a disorder by virtue of particular risk factors, such as being children of a depressed parent; indicated programs are delivered to students with early or mild symptoms of a disorder; and treatment programs are provided for those diagnosed with the disorder (Neil Christensen, 2007). Universal prevention programs target all young people in the community regardless of their level of risk, and include economic measures, social marketing, and regulatory control and law enforcement initiatives, as well as a range of psychosocial programs (Lubmen et al., 2007). In addition, interventions can be divided between promotion and prevention programs. Mental health promotion refers to activity designed to enhance emotional wellbeing, or increase public understanding of mental health issues and reduce the stigma surrounding mental illness. Prevention of mental illness may focus on at risk groups or sectors of the whole population. (Mental Health Policy and Planning Unit, ACT, 2006). Source: Mental Health Policy and Planning Unit, ACT (2006). Finally, collaborative care is typically described as a multifaceted intervention involving combinations of distinct professionals working collaboratively within the primary care setting. Collaborative care not only improves depression outcomes in months, but has been found to show benefits for up to 5 years (Hickie and McGorry, 2007). The importance of early intervention In the last two decades research demonstrated the high importance of early intervention to promote youth mental health and cope with mental disorders and substance misuse. Early intervention is required to minimise the impact of mental illness on a young persons learning, growth and development, thus improving the health outcome of those affected by mental illness. (Orygen Youth Health, 2009). It was found that the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) could be dramatically reduced by providing community education and mobile detection teams in an experimental study (McGorry, Killackey Yung, 2007; McGorry et al., 2007). On the other hand, delayed treatment and prolonged duration of untreated psychosis is correlated with poorer response to treatment and worse outcomes. Thus, first-episode psychosis should be viewed as a psychiatric emergency and immediate treatment sought as a matter of urgency (McGorry and Yung, 2003). The existing evidence also highlights the importance of prevention and early intervention programs on substance abuse. Such programs focus on delaying the age of onset of drug experimentation; reducing the number of young people who progress to regular or problem use; and encouraging current users to minimise or reduce risky patterns of use. Universal school-based drug education programs have been found to be effective in preventing and delaying the onset of drug use and reducing drug consumption (Lubmen et al., 2007). Early andeffective intervention, targeting young people aged 1225 years, is a community priority. A robust focus on young peoples mental health has the capacity to generate greater personal, social and economic benefits than similar intervention in other age groups, and is therefore one of the best buys for future reforms (McGorry et al., 2007). Importance of other players During the early phases of a mental disorder, members of a persons social network (including parents, peers and GPs) can play an important role in providing support and encouraging appropriate help-seeking. For mental-health problems, young people tend to seek help from friends and family rather than health services. In developing countries, young people are even less willing to seek professional help for more sensitive matters (Tylee et al., 2007). As friends and family are often consulted first by young people, they constitute and important part of the pathway to professional mental health services (Rickwood, Deane and Wilson, 2007). In a survey with young Australians and their parents, it was found that the most common response was to listen, talk or support the person, followed by listen, talk orsupport family and encourage professional help-seeking. Counsellor and GP/doctor/medical were the most frequently mentioned types of professional help that would be encouraged, but when young people were asked open ended questions about how they would help a peer, only a minority mentioned that they would encourage professional help. Among parents, encouraging professional help was a common response both in open-ended and direct questions (Jorm, Wright and Morgan, 2007). General practice is essential to young peoples mental health and is often the point of initial contact with professional services. However, there is a need to improve the ability of GPs to recognise mental health problems in young people As well asensuring privacy and clearly explaining confidentiality. Finally, GPs can provide reassurance that it is common to feel distress at times, and that symptoms can be a normal response to stressful events (Rickwood et al., 2007). Schools For the small percentage of youth who do receive service, this typically occurs in a school setting. School-based mental health (SBMH) programs and services not only enhance access to services for youth, but also reduce stigma for help seeking, increase opportunities to promote generalization and enhance capacity for mental health promotion and problem prevention efforts (Paternite, 2005). There is compelling evidence of the effectiveness of a range of school-based interventions in primary and secondary schools for children and young people at risk of substance abuse (Vimpani, 2005). One study found that participation in a school-based intervention beginning in preschool was associated with a wide range of positive outcomes, including less depressive symptoms (Reynolds et al., 2009). Best elements for SBMH include: (a) schoolfamilycommunity agency partnerships, (b) commitment to a full continuum of mental health education, mental health promotion, assessment, problem prevention, early intervention, and treatment, and (c) services for all youth, including those in general and special education. A strong connection between schools and other community agencies and programs also assists in moving a community toward a system of care, and promotes opportunities for developing more comprehensive and responsive programs and services (Paternite, 2005). Government policy There are a number of examples of governmental policy and program to enhance youth mental health. The new Medicare-based scheme now includes a suite of measures designed to increase access to appropriate and affordable forms of evidence-based psychological care. Unfortunately, it largely reverts to traditional individual fee-for-service structures. There are no requirements for geographical distribution of services, despite the evidence of gross mal-distribution of mental health specialist services in Australia and the proven contribution of lack of mental health services to increased suicide rates in rural and regional communities (Hickie and McGorry, 2007). Transformation is also occurring in primary care in Australia. GPs are increasing their skills, providing new evidence-based medication and psychological treatments, and beginning to emphasise long term functional outcomes rather than short-term relief of symptoms. Early-intervention paradigms depend on earlier presentation for treatment. Future progress now depends on development of an effective and accessible youth-health and related primary care network. (Hickie et al., 2005). As for substance abuse, The National Campaign Against Drug Abuse (now known as the National Drug Strategy) was established in 1985. It is an inter-governmental and strategic approach based on national and state government cooperation and planning. The campaign has been adopted to bring together research and practice relevant to the treatment and prevention to protect the healthy development of children and youth (Williams et al., 2005). Existing programs There are several existing programs which address youth mental health and substance abuse. Knowing which programs exist may help us in understanding existing resources and knowledge, learning best practices, and recognising what else needs to be done. Australian programs: * The National Youth Mental Health Foundation headspace: providing mental and health wellbeing support, information and services to young people aged 12 to 25 years and their families across Australia. * MindMatters is a national mental health initiative funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. It is a professional development program supporting Australian secondary schools in promoting and protecting the mental health, social and emotional wellbeing of all the members of school communities. * Mindframe: a national Australian Governments program aimed at improving media reporting on mental health issues, providing access to accurate information about suicide and mental illness and portraying these issues in the news media and on stage and screen in Australia. * The Personal Assessment and Crises Evaluation (PACE) clinic provides treatment for young people who are identified as being at ultra high risk. It involves facilitated groups using adult learning principles based on a curriculum addressing adolescent communication, conflict resolution and adolescent development. * The Gatehouse Project has been developed in Australia as an enhancement program for use in the secondary school environment. It incorporates professional training for teachers and an emotional competence curriculum for students and is designed to make changes in the social and learning environments of the school as well as promoting change at the individual level. * Pathways to Prevention: a universal, early intervention, developmental prevention project focused on the transition to school in one of the most disadvantaged urban areas in Queensland. * The Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), which has been implemented widely in Australia and elsewhere for parents of preschool children, has also been implemented for parents of primary school-aged children. * The Family Partnerships training program, now established in several Australian states and already incorporated into maternal and child health and home visitor training, is designed to improve the establishment of an effective respectful partnership between health workers and their clients. Other international programs: * ARC (Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity): an organizational and community intervention model that was designed to support the improvement of social and mental health services for children. The ARC model incorporates intervention components from organizational development, inter-organizational domain development, the diffusion of innovation, and technology transfer that target social, strategic, and technological factors in effective childrens services. * Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY) is a universal prevention programme targeted at parents of pre-adolescents (aged 8 -14 years) that has been subjected to several large-scale dissemination and effectiveness studies across 30 states of the United States and Canada involving 120000 families. Future directions This paper suggests that despite a wealth of knowledge and information on appropriate interventional methods, services to address youth mental health in Australia are not consistently provided and are often under-funded. New evidence is continuously available for professionals; however this knowledge has often failed to filter through to the community and those in need. As Bertolote McGorry (2005) asserted, despite the availability of interventions that can reduce relapses by more than 50%, not all affected individuals have access to them, and when they do, it is not always in a timely and sustained way. The major health problems for young people are largely preventable. Access to primary-health services is seen as an important component of care, including preventive health for young people. Young people need services that are sensitive to their unique stage of biological, cognitive, and psychosocial transition into adulthood, and an impression of how health services can be made more youth-friendly has emerged (Tylee et al., 2007). Existing and new extended community networks, including business, schools, sporting bodies, government sectors, community agencies and the broader community are asked to play their part in mental health promotion and illness prevention. These networks will: * bring together all service sectors and the broader community in closer collaboration in the promotion of mental health; * exchange information about, and increase understanding of existing activities, and encourage new ones; * develop and strengthen the mental health promoting aspects of existing activities; develop greater mental health promotion skills right across the community; and * encourage an environment that fosters and welcomes new ideas, and supports adaptation and innovation to respond to a new environment (Mental Health Policy and Planning Unit, ACT, 2006). As for substance misuse, despite acknowledgement of the substantial costs associated with alcohol misuse within Australia, there have not been serious attempts to reduce alcohol harm using the major levers of mass-marketing campaigns, accompanied by significant changes to alcohol price and regulatory controls. Young people continue to be given conflicting messages regarding the social acceptability of consuming alcohol (Lubmen et al., 2007). According to the Mental Health Policy and Planning Unit (2006), ideas about the best strategies for supporting the mental health of the community are undergoing great change in Australia and internationally, with a growing focus on preventative approaches. Mental health promotion and prevention are roles for the whole community and all sectors of government. Although Australia has slipped behind in early intervention reform, it is now emerging that the situation can improve and that Australia can again be at the forefront of early intervention work. Here are some proposals as to how this can best be achieved: Guaranteed access to specialist mental health services for a minimum period of 3 years post-diagnosis for all young people aged 1525 with a first-episode of psychosis. New funding is clearly required to support this. Such funding must be quarantined into new structures, programmes and teams. The child versus adult psychiatry service model split is a serious flaw for early intervention and for modern and appropriate developmental psychiatry models. It needs to be transcended by proactive youth-orientated models. Early detection and engagement can be radically improved through such reforms and specialist mental health care can also be delivered in a less salient and stigmatized manner. McGorry et al. (2007) suggested four service levels that are required to fully manage mental illness among young people: Improving community capacity to deal with mental health problems in young people through e-health, provision of information, first aid training and self-care initiatives; Primary care services provided by general practitioners and other frontline service providers, such as school counsellors, community health workers, and non-government agency youth workers; Enhanced primary care services provided by GPs (ideally working in collaboration with specialist mental health service providers in co-located multidisciplinary service centres) as well as team-based virtual networks; Specialist youth-specific (1225 years) mental health services providing comprehensive assessment, treatment and social and vocational recovery services (McGorry et al., 2007). Elements of successful programs (best practices) Revising the vast research on preventing mental disorders and promoting mental health among youth, particularly in Australia, as well as examining some of the successful and effective programs in the field, the following items summarise elements of current best practice: Holistic approaches and community engagement: Adopt holistic approaches which integrate mental health promotion with other aspects of community and individual wellbeing Balance between universal and targeted programmes and their relative cost-effectiveness. Engage young people, the community and youth support services in working together to build the resilience of young people, and encourage early help and help seeking when problems occur Community engagement with the youth, and youth engagement with the community Outreach workers, selected community members and young people themselves are involved in reaching out with health services to young people in the community Promote community-based health facility: including stand-alone units (which are generally run by non-governmental organisations or by private individuals or institutions), and units that are an integral part of a district or municipal health system (that are run by the government). Access to services and information: Make services more accessible to youth by collaborating with schools, GPs, parents etc. Social marketing to reduce stigma and make information more accessible Have more information online for young people with mental health issues, their families and peers. Promote understanding among community members of the benefits that young people will gain by obtaining health services Reduce costs Improve convenience of point of delivery working hours and locations Assure youth-friendly primary-care services Have other players in the community involved in promotion of youth mental health, such as schools, GPs, and community centres Practitioners training Ensure confidentiality and privacy (including discreet entrance) Addressing inequities (including gender inequities) and easing the respect, protection, and fulfilment of human rights Inter-sectoral and inter-organisational collaboration: Enable organisations to work in partnership towards shared goals Lead to multi agency, client centred service delivery and care Research and support: Provide support such as information and training for the community and for mental health carers and consumers to plan and participate in mental health promotion activity Acknowledge formal and informal knowledge Policy: Promoting a whole-of-government response to support optimal development health and well-being outcomes Policies and procedures are in place that ensure health services that are either free or affordable to all young people

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Drama - I wanted to present a convincing portrayal of a wealthy, educated :: Drama

Drama - I wanted to present a convincing portrayal of a wealthy, educated woman who, faced with a extremely distressing, seemingly insurmountable personal problem, sees what looks like a perfect solution, but which ends up driving her to madness. Why Were the Nazis Able to Attempt the Genocide of the Jewish People in the Years1939 to 1945? ==================================================================== How Has the Human Rights Position of the Jews Improved Since 1945? ================================================================== The power of the Nazi State made it difficult to resist and rebel against the Nazis. By 1939 the Nazis had built up an enormous empire and army. The SS were responsible for security of Hitler and leading Nazis. Rudolf Hoess said that, '...the thought of refusing an order just didn't enter one's head, regardless of what kind of order it was.' The SS were completely loyal to Hitler and strictly disciplined. The SS also did work such as manning the concentration camps. The concentration camps were created in 1933 and they were prisons for opposition to the Nazis and people who did not fit in with the Nazis, including the Jews. A special, secret police force was devised in 1936 called the Gestapo. They would catch people if they thought they had said anything wrong about the Nazis, or they were Jewish. Ordinary people were scared of being reported by the SS or Gestapo, so most did nothing to prevent the Holocaust. Many people may have ignored Anti-Semitism because, they agreed with the Nazis on other issues, however some people were actively Anti-Semitic themselves. This tells us that the Nazis had built up a state so powerful and secretive that it was possible to get away with genocide. The wartime emergency made it possible to keep the extermination of the Jews secret, from the majority of the population. A map of Poland and Germany (Source U) shows that all the extermination camps were situated in Poland, away from the German population. Therefore, the Germans may not have known, as they would not be able to see the camps. Also the SS were forced to keep the genocide a secret, in a speech by Himmler he said, '...we will never speak about it in public.' and also 'à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦he would do it again if it were an order and if it were necessary.' The German people were also subjected to Nazi propaganda and control. They would also be worried about food, water and being bombed on, as it was wartime. They were probably worried about themselves. Also Stephen Lee tells that extermination would be kept secret by terms such as, 'resettled', 'evacuated' or 'deported'.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Hester Pryne of Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter :: Scarlet Letter essays

Hester Pryne of The Scarlet Letter Hester Pryne, after being punished for her sin, lived an important life. In "The Scarlet Letter" by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Hester was convicted of adultery. However, after her conviction, she managed to raise a daughter, became an important seamstress in her community, and set an example for her close-knit community. Pearl, the daughter of a convicted sex offender, grew up living a different life from her peers. Growing up with Hester, Pearl never really associated with children from her age group. This happened because whenever Hester and Pearl went into town, they were tormented and harassed. In retaliation, Pearl began to throw rocks back at the children. This kind of thing only happened in the beginning of Pearl's life. Later on, the kids stopped harassing Pearl because her mom's sin did not have as much effect on the people of the town. The best thing that ever happened to Pearl was her move to Europe with Hester and her father, Reverend Dimmesdale. In Europe, Hester pretty much left Pearl alone. Pearl, then got married and started a new life. In the book, Pearl was always the smartest character portrayed by Hawthorne. Had Hester been put to death because of her sin, Pearl might not have been as successful as she became. Hester was a very admirable person. After committing her awful sin (awful as seen by the townspeople), and losing the respect of most of the townspeople, Hester was able to turn her life around for the better. Her turn around, however, happened slowly. It took Hester and Pearl a while to earn some respect in their community. Hester became a renowned seamstress. She made clothes for herself and Pearl, she even sewed gloves for the governor. For Pearl, she made some beautiful dresses. She made some of these dresses a crimson color, (which was a color close to scarlet). She did this to remind herself of her sin. Most people, if put into a situation similar to Hester's, would let their life deteriorate. Hester, having pulled her life together was the strongest character, (mentally), in this book. Her life was anything but a waste. To Her community, Hester served as an example of how one can turn

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Cocaine and the Nervous System Essay examples -- Drug Drugs Coke Cocai

Cocaine and the Nervous System All drugs have a negative effect on the nervous system, but few can match the dramatic impact of cocaine. Cocaine is one of the most potent, addictive, and unpredictable recreational drugs, and thus can cause the most profound and irreversible damage to the nervous system. The high risk associated with cocaine remains the same regardless of whether the drug is snorted, smoked, or injected into the user ¡Ã‚ ¯s bloodstream. In addition to the intense damage cocaine can cause to the liver, intestines, heart, and lungs, even casual use of the drug will impair the brain and cause serious damage to the central nervous system. Although cocaine use affects many components of the body, including vision and appetite, the most significant damage cause by cocaine takes place in the brain and central nervous system. Spanish explorers first observe South American natives chewing the cocoa leaf, from which cocaine is derived, when they arrived on the continent in 16th century. The South Americans chewed these cocoa leaves in order to stay awake for longer periods of time. Centuries after this initial discovery, Albert Neiman isolated cocaine from the cocoa leaf in 1860. Neiman used this extraction as an anesthetic. Over the ensuing years, cocaine use became increasingly common and was even sanctioned by doctors, who prescribed the drug to aid recovering alcoholics. Cocaine was even a key ingredient in such popular beverages as Coca- Cola. It was not until the long-term health problems associated with cocaine use emerged that the public realized that the drug was harmful and highly addictive (2). Cocaine is a versatile drug which can be ingested in a variety of ways. In its purest form, coc... ...te an artificial high. Cocaine can cause serious damage to the nervous system, as it eats away chunks of the brain and increases blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature, often for the rest of the addict ¡Ã‚ ¯s life. Sources Cited: 1)Drug information: Cocaine 2)Cocaine 3)The Effects of Cocaine on the Developing Nervous System 4)The Physical Effects of Cocaine 5)As a Matter of Fact 6)Crack and Cocaine 7)Cocaine Brain Damage may be Permanent